5933 FM 1157 Ganado, TX 77962 (361) 771-2755 © 2018 BH Genetics. Linkage group identities and homologies were determined for metaphase chromosomes of Sorghum bicolor (2n = 20) by FISH of landed BACs. Sorghum is taxonomically and genetically closely related to maize (Zea mays (L.) , despite the fact that it originated in Africa and maize originated in the Americas. One species, Sorghum bicolor, was originally domesticated in Africa and has since spread throughout the globe. It is also used as biofuel crop and potential cellulosic feedstock. In sorghum, 13 stem diameter QTL have been reported on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, and 9 in a S. bicolor SS79 x M71 RIL population, using 157 AFLP, SSR, and EST-SSR markers (Shiringani et al. On the other hand, the sorghum association panel (SAP) comprises multiple resistance sources that have not been utilized in sorghum breeding … Approach (from AD-416) Obtain chromosome counts and determine genome size for 19 wild sorghum species. However, the numbers of putative orthologs provided only a global overview. 2002). chromosome, chromosome number, 2n= Common Name Genus species Chromosome Number (2n=?) Orthologous chromosomal locations of selected 20 sugarcane BACs on each chromosome arm of the 10 sorghum chromosomes. The diploid genome (~730 Mb) has a haploid chromosome number of 10. and rabi season are CSV 11, M 35-1, A 1, CSV 8R, Swathi, etc. Seventeen of the 25 species are native to Australia, with the range of some extending to Africa, Asia, Mesoamerica, and certain islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. 1994; Dufour et al. Chromosomes are depicted with the shorter arm in the top position. We developed an integrated “cyto-genomic” map from FISH data on 24 BACs containing linkage markers from across the sorghum genome (Figure 2, Table 2). The diploid genome (~730 Mb) has a haploid chromosome number of 10. The locations of the BACs were based on the overgo probe hits on the sorghum scafold sequence. 7 km NW of Windjana T/O on Gibb River Rd, NT, AustraliaÂ, East Africa, seeds obtained from G. Liang, Kansas State UniversityÂ, Colchicine-induced autotetraploid by G. Liang, Kansas State UniversityÂ, Copyright © 2021 Annals of Botany Company. 1999; Bhattramakki et al. S. halepense has a chromosome number of either 2n=20 or 2n= 40. Summary statistics for the Sorghum bicolor reference genome. One species is grown for grain, whil… Sorghum and maize are both diploid plants with 10 chromosomes, 2n = 20 (Lee, 2004, Obilana, 2004). The only secondary constriction and nucleolus organizing region (NOR) observed in BTx623 was located near the centromere in the short arm of chromosome 1, SBI-01p. In this study, PH and FL were not significantly correlated (Table S2), an unexpected finding compared to many other sorghum studies ( Lin et al. Adoption of a common nomenclature for sorghum linkage groups will facilitate the integration of data and genomic resources developed by independent research laboratories. The patterns of signals enable FISH-based recognition of each chromosome pair and associate specific linkage groups with specific chromosomes. (1991), respectively, but means of evaluation were lacking and their relationship to molecular markers and genomic resources remains unknown. Our members work to advance knowledge in the basic mechanisms of inheritance, from the molecular to the population level. The number of bases incorporated into the genome, the contiguity of the sequence, and the accuracy of the sequence improved in version 3. 2000; Haussmann et al. For karyotyped images, DAPI-stained chromosomes were measured using Optimas v6.0 (Media Cybernetics, Silver Spring, MD). 2003). sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) have the same number of chromo-somes (2n 5 20). Sorghum grande is a perennial diploid with a chromosome number of 30 or 40 (2n = 30, 40), distributed in the Northern Territory (isolated in Katherine region) and Queensland, Australia. Simultaneous FISH of a 17-BAC cocktail probe to sorghum mitotic metaphase chromosome spread. So called ‘bird-resistant, bird-proof or bird-repellent’ sorghums contain condensed tannins, in the nucellar layer and pericarp, that are distasteful to birds and give the crops some protection. 1998; Tao et al. The tree was rooted u… 2002; Bowers et al. Enter multiple addresses on separate lines or separate them with commas. each of the 10 chromosome pairs of sorghum in at least two of the translocations, was used to determine which chromosomes carried genes conditioning dhurrin content of sorghum seedlings. Lengths of the remaining chromosomes followed a somewhat bimodal distribution, with SBI-02, -03, -04, and -05 constituting the group of longer chromosomes (3.87–3.44 μm) and SBI-06, -07, -08, -09, and -10 constituting the group of shorter ones (3.15–2.97 μm). 2001; Howell et al. Chromosomes are numbered according to size and linkage groups are labeled alphabetically. Reference (see below) 2008b ; Ritter et al. Each trait-associated SNP and annotated genes located within a 50 kb window up and downstream from each trait-associated SNP for each GWAS analysis shown in Figure 5 (d) and (e) and S5 are provided in Additional file S1 . 1964; Bennett and Laurie 1995; Sang and Liang 2000). The medial position seen in BTx623 is of interest, but not unique. The BAC 79A20 was corresponding to an arm of the sorghum chromosome … Home; Contact Us; Yield Results; Products; Corn; Sorghum; Sorghum Forage; Sorghum Sudangrass NORs in most S. bicolor genotypes (and a number of other Sorghum species) occur in medial locations of the largest chromosome of the genome (Magoon and Shambulingappa 1960; Magoon and Ramana 1961; Magoon et al. a.async=true;a.type="text/javascript";b.parentNode.insertBefore(a,b)}, 1); (2002; data not shown). Homologous chromosome pairs were identified with the aid of MacProbe v.4.2.3, according to the pattern of signal on each chromosome. Sorghum bicolor is a widely grown cereal crop, particularly in Africa, ranking 5th in global cereal production. Parasorghum. It is also used as biofuel crop and potential cellulosic feedstock. It is also used as biofuel crop and potential cellulosic feedstock. Traditionally, it has been assumed … SK participated in the breeding of the sorghum SIL-05 (line number 89) and provided the seeds. The detailed morphology of the pachytene chromosomes of Sorghum nitidum with one accessory chromosome (2n=10A+1B) has been analyzed. Millsp. Backcross progenies and parental plants were started in the greenhouse, and 100 plants of each backcross and … The lowest haploid. Other considerations are the types of sex chromosomes, lethal genes, and polyploidy. The NOR of its close rhizomatous relative, S. propinquum, is located in the short arm of the smallest chromosome (Magoon and Shambulingappa 1961). The first whole genome sequence of a grain sorghum is available, but additional genome sequences are required to study genome-wide … Several recent studies have identified loci responsible for broad-spectrum resistance to anthracnose in sorghum accessions on chromosomes 5 and 9 [17, 21, 25,26,27]; however, widespread use of these resistance sources may reduce their durability. Sorghum is reflected in the chromosome number of the species belonging to the different subgenera (Figure 1). Bar indicates 1.5 μm for metaphase chromosomes and 50 cM for linkage maps. 2000). Price et al. The ability to reliably identify contracted chromosomes facilitated development of a standardized karyotype (ideogram) for Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench. (2002), except as follows. SBI-01 is morphologically the most distinct chromosome of the sorghum haploid complement. Sorghum in different Languages: Cholam ( Tamil ), Jonna ( Telugu ), Searjam ( Malayalam ), ... Large number of varieties/hybrids with higher yield potential than that of local has been released. Seven accessions of S. … The chromosome number of Saccharum ranges from 2 n = 36 to 170 (D aniels and R oach 1987; J. E. I rvine, unpublished data), while chromosome number of Sorghum ranges from 2 n = 10 to 40 (D oggett and P rasada R ao 1995). https://doi.org/10.1534/genetics.104.035980, Evidence for a Tumor Suppressor Role for the, Targeted Heritable Mutation and Gene Conversion by Cas9-CRISPR in, Chromosome Identification and Nomenclature of Sorghum bicolor. Chromosomes 5 and 10 showed relatively high SNP densities, whereas whole-genome diversity in this population was low. Assembly. More than 800 markers mapped in sorghum are derived from other taxa (hence serve as comparative anchors) and additional sorghum markers have been mapped directly in other taxa, or can be plotted based on sequence similarity. 2003). It should be noted, however, that the relative length of the two SBI-01 arms shifts during the mitotic chromosome contraction. Each translocation stock was crossed and backcrossed once to a low-dhur­ rin line of sudangrass. Because NORs contract differentially late in the cell cycle and are otherwise very long, overall length of the NOR-bearing arm, SBI-01p, actually exceeds that of the long arm (SBI-01q) until the chromatin contraction process is nearly complete, i.e., at metaphase. Asterisks denote signals from the 17 BACs shown in Figure 1. 1991), for the purpose of molecular size estimation, it is important to target metaphase, i.e., when molecular density is most uniform along the chromosome long axis and relative lengths most accurately reflect relative molecular size. The three-letter acronym SBI designates the genus and species, and the two-digit numeric code denotes the chromosome number. These sorghum chromosomes … Figure 1 shows karyotypes of Sorghum species varying in chromosome number and. BAC clones are positioned on the ideogram according to their positions relative to the centromeres. Although highly repetitive, the genome is more tractable for sequencing than its close relative, Zea mays. 2001; Kulikova et al. The lowest haploid. Sorghum bicolor is a drought tolerant C4 grass used for the production of grain, forage, sugar, and lignocellulosic biomass and a genetic model for C4 grasses due to its relatively small genome (approximately 800 Mbp), diploid genetics, diverse germplasm, and colinearity with other C4 grass genomes. ), and the National Science Foundation Plant Genome grants DBI-0077713 (J.E.M. In addition, the molecular cytology of three sorghum chromosomes has been analyzed in detail using genetically mapped BAC clones and FISH (I slam-F aridi et al. For FISH of the multi-probe cocktail from 17 BAC clones, 50× Cot-1 DNA was added to the probe mixture, which was denatured at 90° for 10 min, chilled on ice, and then annealed for 30 min before application to the slide. 1999; Peng et al. The mixture was denatured at 90° for 10 min, chilled on ice, and added to the slide. Data were exported to a spreadsheet (Microsoft Excel) and analyzed. The size-based nomenclature for BTx623 represents a reasonable choice as the standard for a unified chromosome nomenclature for use by the sorghum research community. 2n = 10, 20, 30, 40). FISH-karyotypic analysis of parents and meiotic analysis of their F1 hybrids might alert researchers to perturbations that could otherwise cryptically distort linkage maps and predictions derived from them or preclude expected genetic gains. Cytogenetic and genetic analyses showed that sorghum chromosomes are comprised of distal regions of high gene density that exhibit high rates of recombination and large heterochromatic pericentromeric regions characterized by low gene density and low rates of recombination (Kim et al., 2005). It provides a cyto-genomic approach in which linkage group markers and cytological markers are integrated. 792) for the 21 Sorghum species studied, based upon combined ITS/ndhF sequences. The two significant SNPs at the end of chromosome 6 are close to a locus for sorghum height identified in a separate sorghum MAGIC population (QTL-6) . Despite this, a high-quality genome sequence was assembled from homozygous sorghum genotype … Among 335 accessions available to breeders from a previously genotyped sorghum association panel (SAP), we found that 75 were resistant to anthracnose. All authors read and … The most recognizable chromosome number transition is whole-genome duplication (WGD), or more generally polyploidy, which due to the recent finding that many seemingly diploid species have in fact … Chromosome number Locality Sorghum × almum Parodi-1 Liu 237 (ILRI 13515) IBSC/US Perennial 2n = 2x = 40 Ethiopia S. × almum-2 Liu 432 (PI 190579) IBSC Argentina S. × drummondii (Nees ex Steud.) The tetraploid S. halepense (2n=40) will hybridize with diploid cultivated sorghum, Sorghumbicolor (L.) Moench (2n=20), and the progeny are usually sterile triploids which may be … Subscribe via email. Anchoring of the sorghum maps to those of rice … QTL of base to flag length (red), flag to rachis length (magenta), plant height (orange), number of nodes (blue) and days to flower (green) on ten sorghum chromosomes. For single-probe FISH, the hybridization mixture (25 μl) contained 10 ng of labeled BAC probe DNA, 50% formamide, 10% dextran sulfate, and 2× SSC. The sequenced reads were mapped to the sorghum reference genome 2 assembly (version … Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is globally produced as a source of food, feed, fiber and fuel. The genome contains a high level of repeats (61%). Distal regions of euchromatin and pericentromeric regions of … Sorghum is an interesting genus having a large number of well-recognized species taxonomically classified into five subgenera. We thank William L. Rooney, Department of Soil and Crop Sciences, for providing seed for mitotic preparations. HK grew the sorghum plant, carried out the quantification of their sucrose content, and revised the manuscript. Main determinant is the karyotype, referring to the number, as well as the size and shape of the chromosomes of an individual. A FISH-based karyotype of S. bicolor inbred line BTx623 was developed, in which chromosomes were ordered and designated according to total length at metaphase, namely SBI-01 (longest) to SBI-10 (shortest). 2002; K im et al. 1998, 2000; Boivin et al. Chromosome Number: 2n = 20. (1984) and Yu et al. Here, we used FISH-based karyotyping in concert with analysis of chromosome lengths, arm lengths, and arm ratios to establish a size-based nomenclature for sorghum chromosomes. 2. in which chromosome number is built by units of ten (i.e. List of genetic markers and their anchored BACs used for integrating linkage and cytogenetic maps. For most well-studied genomes, linkage group nomenclature and chromosomal designations are integrated and are usually based on biological parameters, e.g., chromosome size, arm length, and arm orientation (Werner et al.