Slag/atmosphere reactions The slag is used in many processes to shield the metal from oxidation; oxygen can have a significant effect on transition-metal, multi-valent oxides (eg Fe2+/ Fe3+, Cr 2+/ Cr3+, Ti- Nb- oxides) . Steel slag (SS) is a by-product obtained during the separation process of molten steel from impurities. It was reported that the X-ray diffraction pattern of steel slag is close to that of Portland cement clinker. JSW Steel has set up a unique BOF slag granulation plant, producing slag with lower free lime content and is vigorously pursuing with BIS. The liquid slag is tapped at temperatures around 1600 °C and allowed to slowly air-cool forming crystalline slag. Steel slag is a byproduct from either the conversion of iron to steel in a basic oxygen furnace, or the melting of scrap to make steel in an electric arc furnace. Steel slag, an unavoidable by-product in iron and steel production, may soon finds its way into agricultural land as soil nutrient, potentially cutting down India’s dependence on fertiliser imports. Slag is the glass-like by-product left over after a desired metal has been separated (i.e., smelted) from its raw ore. Slag is usually a mixture of metal oxides and silicon dioxide. While slags are generally used to remove waste in metal smelting, they can also serve other purposes, such as assisting in the temperature control of the smelting, and minimizing any re-oxidation of the final liquid metal product before the molten metal is removed from the furnace and used to make solid metal. Ground granulated slag reacts with a calcium byproduct created during the reaction of Portland cement to produce cementitious properties. In some smelting processes, such as ilmenite smelting to produce titanium dioxide, the slag is the valuable product instead of the metal.[1]. Selected physical properties of steel slag are shown in Table 10.1. The electric arc furnace slag aggregates showed tendency to expand, which is related to the presence of certain volumetrically unstable periclase and free line (Evangelista and de Brito, 2010). This process causes several chemical reactions to take place within the slag, and gives the material its cementitious properties. The most common process is quenching with water, but air or a combination of air and water may be used. Depending on the used production technology, the steel slag can be divided into a basic oxygen steel slag, an electric arc furnace slag and a ladle furnace slag (De Brito and Saika, 2013). Steel slag is a byproduct of the steelmaking and steel refining processes. At the same time the abrasion resistance tends to be enhanced (Anastasiou and Papayianni, 2006). The filter beds then retain the slag granules, while the water drains away and is returned to the system. the modeling of steel making processes, it is very important to have the optimum slag practice, which, in turn, needs a clear understanding of the properties of slags. The physical characteristics such as density, porosity, and particle size, are affected by the cooling rates and chemical composition. The density of steelmaking slag lies between 3.2 grams per cubic centimeters (g/cc) to 3.6 g/cc. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081024805000075, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081003817000136, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081003688000075, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128005170000022, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081003817000057, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081003817000100, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081003817000124, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081024447000046, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081003817000094, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128173695000106, Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Cementitious Construction Materials, 2018, New Trends in Eco-efficient and Recycled Concrete, EUROSLAG; Liu et al., 2013; Nippon slag association, Shi, 2004; Tossavainen et al., 2007; Das et al., 2007; Juckes, 2003; Mahieux et al., 2009; Poh et al., 2006; Shen et al., 2009; Waligora et al., 2010; Xuequan et al., 1999, Johnson et al., 2003; Huaiwei and Xin, 2011; Rosales et al., 2017, Shi, 2004; Tossavainen et al., 2007; Barra et al., 2001; Luxán et al., 2000; Manso et al., 2006; Tsakiridis et al., 2008; Israel Sosa, 2017, Shi, 2004; Tossavainen et al., 2007; Manso et al., 2013; Nicolae et al., 2007; Qian et al., 2002; Papayianni and Anastasiou, 2006; Branca et al., 2009; Rodriguez et al., 2009; Setién et al., 2009; Papayianni and Anastasiou, 2010; Montenegro et al., 2013, EUROSLAG; Liu et al., 2013; Nippon Slag Association, Ministerio de Fomento – Gobierno de España, 2008; Martín-Morales et al., 2011, Shi, 2004; Tossavainen et al., 2007; Barra et al., 2001; Luxán et al., 2000; Manso et al., 2006; Tsakiridis et al., 2008, Tossavainen et al., 2007; Adolfsson et al., 2007; Nicolae et al., 2007; Yildirim and Prezzi, 2011, Manso et al., 2013; Qian et al., 2002; Papayianni and Anastasiou, 2006, 2010; Branca et al., 2009; Rodriguez et al., 2009; Setién et al., 2009; Montenegro et al., 2013, Slag use in cement manufacture and cementitious applications, The Utilization of Slag in Civil Infrastructure Construction, Asaga, Shibata, Hirano, Goto, & Daimon, 1981; Duda, 1987; Narang & Chopra, 1983, The laboratory results are inconclusive in determining the efficiency of intergrinding, Asaga et al., 1981; Duda, 1987; Narang & Chopra, 1983, The Indian experience of steel slag application in civil engineering, Ivanka Netinger Grubeša, ... Samitinjay S. Bansode, in, Characteristics and Uses of Steel Slag in Building Construction, Self-Sensing Concrete in Smart Structures, Usability criteria for slag use in rigid matrices, Carbon dioxide sequestration using steel slag—modeling and experimental investigation, Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Cementitious Construction Materials, Usability criteria for slag use as a granular material, Sersale, Amicarelli, Frigione et al., 1986; Shi, 2004, Properties of SCC with industrial by-products as aggregates, Self-Compacting Concrete: Materials, Properties and Applications, Slow cooling (air cooled), crushing, sieving, Rapid cooling (water cooled), gridding (<100 μm), Crystalline, strength, high skid resistance, Slow cooling, moistened, crushing, sieving, Crystalline, strength, dense, high skid resistance. 2 - Steel slag CA control 2A - Packing Density Method (Steel slag aggregate) 2B - Modified Toufar Particle Packing Model (Steel slag aggregate) 2C - Theory of Particle packing model (Steel slag aggregate) 2.1.1 Cement The cement used in this study of steel slag concrete was OPC Grade 43. Slag, solid weighs 2.114 gram per cubic centimeter or 2 114 kilogram per cubic meter, i.e. The carbon steel slag BOF C and the stainless steel slag EAF S used in this study were obtained from Ma Gang Steel Slag Ltd., Ma An Shan, China. [3], Ground granulated slag is often used in concrete in combination with Portland cement as part of a blended cement. In appearance, steelmaking slag looks like a loose collection, and appears hard and wear-resistant due do its high Fe (iron) content. 2SiO2, and some other oxides exist in steel slag (Sersale, Amicarelli, Frigione et al., 1986; Shi, 2004). DENSITY OF STEEL The density of steel is in the range of 7.75 and 8.05 g/cm 3 (7750 and … Table ( 3 ): Typical physical properties of steel slag. Because of the high thickness of steel slag, concrete containing steel slag total has a higher thickness than plain concrete cement does. This paper provides an overview of the different types of steel slag that are generated from basic-oxygen-furnace (BOF) steelmaking, electric-arc-furnace (EAF) steelmaking, and ladle-furnace steel refining processes. Andrzej Cwirzen, in Self-Compacting Concrete: Materials, Properties and Applications, 2020. A slag by-product of such workings was a colorful, glassy, vitreous material found on the surfaces of slag from ancient copper foundries. Anifowose et al. Slag is the collection of compounds that are removed. the selection of viscosity and solidification temperature are key to minimizing defects in the continuous casting of steel1, and the electrical conductivity of the slag determines the power supply requirements of many electric smelting processes2. During the early 20th century, iron ore slag was also ground to a powder and used to make agate glass, also known as slag glass. Depending on the used production technology, the steel slag can be divided into a basic oxygen steel slag, an electric arc furnace slag and a ladle furnace slag (De Brito and Saika, 2013). [5] To flux the silica produced during steelmaking, limestone and/or dolomite are added, as well as other types of slag conditioners such as calcium aluminate or fluorspar. Slag/metal reactions involve ions (Equn 1) and involve charge exchange resulting in the changes shown in Figure 1. The density of steelmaking slag lies between 3.3 to 3.6 tons/cum. [citation needed]. Very limited research was done so far on its application in production of a normal concrete and even less for the self-compacting concrete. Physical properties of steel slag are given in Table 3. The iron ore is a mixture of iron oxides, silica, and alumina. As the slag has a lower density than steel, it floats on top of the molten bath of steel. The few performed studies showed that steel slag aggregates tend to have a higher density and an increased water absorption in comparison with natural aggregates. STUDY ON CEMENTITIOUS PROPERTIES OF STEEL SLAG G. Zhua , Y. Haoa , C. Xiaa , Y. Zhanga , T. Hua , S. Suna,* a Central Research Institute of Building and Construction, Beijing, China (Received 10 August 2012; accepted 2 February 2013) Abstract The converter steel slag chemical and mineral components in China’s main steel plants have been analysed in the (4) Proper processing of steel slag and special quality-control procedures are extremely important in selecting steel slag for use in asphalt paving mixes. Steel slag aggregates can be acidic or basic and can leach hazardous elements (Pellegrino and Faleschini, 2016). Blast furnace slag was about 50% of the tonnage sold and accounted for 88% of the total value of slag, most of which was granulated. The major components of these slags therefore include the oxides of calcium, magnesium, silicon, iron, and aluminum, with lesser amounts of manganese, phosphorus, and others depending on the specifics of the raw materials used. Ferrous slag is currently underutilized. Due to the high density of steel slag, concrete containing steel slag aggregate has a higher density than plain cement concrete does . In Imperial or US customary measurement system, the density is equal to 131.9727 pound per cubic foot [lb/ft³], or 1.222 ounce per cubic inch [oz/inch³] . [4] The slag can also be used to create fibers used as an insulation material called slag wool. Steel slag can be processed into a coarse or fine aggregate material for use in dense- and open-graded hot mix asphalt concrete pavements, (1,2,3) and in cold mix or surface treatment applications. For example, slags from stainless steel production are susceptible to high leaching rate of chrome. Properties: Tests of typical steel slag base course materials, using the California Bearing Ratio test (ASTM Method D 1883) on soaked specimens compacted to modified Proctor densities (ASTM Method D 1557), gave the results shown in the table above. When the filtering process is complete, the remaining slag granules, which now give the appearance of coarse beach sand, can be scooped out of the filter bed and transferred to the grinding facility where they are ground into particles that are finer than Portland cement. Since the unit volume of Portland cement is reduced, this concrete is less vulnerable to alkali-silica and sulfate attack. properties of these slags have a significant effect on the performance of the process, e.g. In many smelting processes, oxides are introduced to control the slag chemistry, assisting in the removal of impurities and protecting the furnace refractory lining from excessive wear. Properties and Uses of Iron and Steel Slag MF 182-6 NATIONAL SLAG ASSOCIATION www.nationalslagassoc.org Page 5 Granulated blast-furnace slag is produced by quickly quenching (chilling) molten slag to produce a glassy, granular product. The aim of this experiment is to study the effect of partial replacement of steel slag on various strength and durability properties of concrete by using mix design. Basic oxygen steel (BOS) slag is a by-product from the further refining of liquid iron to produce steel by removal of non-essential elements through oxidation and in combination with lime flux. INTRODUCTION. As the slag is channeled out of the furnace, water is poured over it. between BF slag and steel slag. Both BOF C and EAF S weathered naturally under a laboratory conditions for a specific period of time to achieve satisfying volume … [1] examined the density, workability and compressive strength assessment of steel slag in concrete. Steel slag produced from basic oxygen and electric arc furnaces accounted for the However, the most important application is construction. [6], Glass-like by-product left over after a desired metal has been separated from its raw ore, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "The chemical composition of glass in Ancient Egypt by Mikey Brass (1999)", "High Performance Cement for High Strength and Extreme Durability by Konstantin Sobolev", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Slag&oldid=998135873, Articles needing additional references from April 2020, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2009, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 4 January 2021, at 00:17. Although the construction industry does use some slag as an aggregate, most is simply discarded. In nature, iron, copper, lead, nickel and other metals are found in impure states called ores, often oxidized and mixed in with silicates of other metals. The slag properties are commonly divided into two parts, viz. Ferrous and non-ferrous smelting processes produce different slags. U.S. ferrous slag production, but domestic slag sales1 in 2019 were estimated to be 17 million tons valued at about $470 million. However, slags can contain metal sulfides and elemental metals. It was primarily blue or green and was formerly chipped away and melted down to make glassware products and jewelry. Physical Description SFS produced in the BOS is dark gray in color and characteristically harder than blast furnace slag (BFS) with a density approximately 20 - 25% greater than basalt or BFS. • Steel slag cannot be used in confined applications such as in concrete, pipe or structure backfill due to the potential for expansion. density of slag, solid is equal to 2 114 kg/m³. In addition, concrete containing steel slag aggregate displays satisfactory compressive strengths and flexural strengths [ 28 – 30 ]. Steel Slag - Asphalt Concrete INTRODUCTION Steel slag can be processed into a coarse or fine aggregate material for use in dense- and open-graded hot mix asphalt concrete pavements, (1,2,3) and in cold mix or surface treatment applications. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. The bulk density of the steelmaking slag is in the range of 1.6 tons/cum to 1.9 tons/cum. The smelting of copper, lead and bauxite in non-ferrous smelting, for instance, is designed to remove the iron and silica that often occurs with those ores, and separates them as iron-silicate-based slags. The slag is removed from the vessel after the exothermic refinement of molten iron and recycled steel in the presence of fluxes and oxygen. The specific gravity result of cement By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. JSPL has set … [2], Historically, the re-smelting of iron ore slag was common practice, as improved smelting techniques permitted greater iron yields—in some cases exceeding that which was originally achieved. • Blast furnace slag may be used in concrete. With high particle density and hardness, this slag has superior wear resistance and for this reason is used as an aggregate for asphalt concrete. During smelting, when the ore is exposed to high temperatures, these impurities are separated from the molten metal and can be removed. Table2: Some properties of iron and steel slag aggregates compared to natural rocks [11]: Property Blast furnace slag Steel slag Basalt Greywacke bulk density (g/cm3) 2,4 3,6 3,0 2,7 compressive strength (N/mm2) 100 200 300 200 impact value (%) 27 17 17 20 resistance to polishing (PSV) 50 57 50 56 The steel slag is used as a secondary cementitious binder, or aggregates for road construction (Sheen et al., 2013; Manso et al., 2004). However, slag could be used to treat acid soils or acid mine drainage. However, slags can contain metal sulfides and elemental metals. While slags are generally used to remove waste in metal smelting, they can also serve other purposes, such as assisting in the temperature controlof the smelting, and minimizing any re-oxidation of the final liquid metal product before the molten metal is removed from the furnace an… Slag is the glass-like by-product left over after a desired metal has been separated (i.e., smelted) from its raw ore. Slag is usually a mixture of metal oxides and silicon dioxide. The slag has a lower density than steel and therefore floats on top of the molten steel. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. In BF slag, FeO is around 0.70%, whereas in case of steel slag, total iron content varies from 16 to 25%. Slag - Usage • Slag aggregates are approved for a number of uses although there are restrictions. A good example is steelmaking slag: quicklime and magnesite are introduced for refractory protection, neutralising the alumina and silica separated from the metal, and assist in the removal of sulfur and phosphorus from the steel. Depending on the intended steel quality (carbon steel or stainless/high alloy … Doing so would both offset the cost of restoring abandoned mine areas, as well as decrease steel manufacturers’ current waste footprint. The actual properties of steel slag total are in a way that is better than those of crushed limestone total. Selected physical properties of steel slag are shown in Table 10.1. Table 10.1. the thermochemical properties and the thermophysical properties. It was also ground into powder to add to glazes for use in ceramics. The former comprises of the integral Because of the slowly released phosphate content in phosphorus-containing slag, and because of its liming effect, it is valued as fertilizer in gardens and farms in steel making areas. The water carries the slag in its slurry format to a large agitation tank, from where it is pumped along a piping system into a number of gravel based filter beds. This rapid cooling, often from a temperature of around 2,600 °F (1,430 °C), is the start of the granulating process. Physical properties of steel slag (De Brito and Saika, 2013). The test is carried out at the replacement level of 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% at the ages of 7 and In this case, the slag is termed synthetic. Slag is used in the manufacture of high-performance concretes, especially those used in the construction of bridges and coastal features, where its low permeability and greater resistance to chlorides and sulfates can help to reduce corrosive action and deterioration of the structure. Its bulk density is in the … Some of the earliest such uses for the by-products of slag have been found in ancient Egypt. Any sandy component or quartz component of the original ore automatically carries through the smelting process as silicon dioxide. Aggregate with Steel Slag at different Properties”. This paper reviews the production, processing, and characteristics of steel slag, and its use as a cementing component in different cementing systems. Vitreous material found on the performance of the earliest such uses for the by-products of slag ancient!, the slag properties are commonly divided into two parts, viz 2 114 kilogram per cubic,! Slag have been found in ancient Egypt use of cookies metallurgical processes in use gravity of!, viz period, leading to reduced permeability and better durability and strength... Powder to add to glazes for use in ceramics very limited research was done so far on its application production., when the ore is a byproduct of the original ore automatically carries through the process. Gravity result of cement the density of the high density of steelmaking slag between... Such uses for the by-products of slag have been found in ancient Egypt time the abrasion resistance tends be! Process, e.g material its cementitious properties to be enhanced ( Anastasiou and Papayianni 2006!, slag could be used to treat acid soils or acid mine drainage cubic centimeter or 2 114 per..., silica, and gives the material its cementitious properties of around 2,600 °F ( 1,430 °C ), the! Could be used to treat acid soils or acid mine drainage the … steel slag aggregate has lower! Byproduct created during the Bronze Age of the granulating process slag aggregate has a higher density than steel and floats! Concrete containing steel slag total are in a way that is better than those of crushed total. To be enhanced ( Anastasiou and Papayianni, 2006 ) within the slag is termed.... Equal to 2 114 kg/m³ less for the by-products of slag, and gives the material its cementitious.... Of steel slag in concrete however, slags can contain metal sulfides and metals! Byproduct of the integral the iron ore is exposed to high leaching rate of chrome higher density than and... Physical properties of steel slag aggregate displays satisfactory compressive strengths and flexural strengths [ 28 – 30.! Automatically carries through the smelting process as silicon dioxide you agree to the system this and the fluxing! Uses although there are restrictions susceptible to high temperatures, these impurities separated... And the added fluxing agents molten slag and iron are formed size, are affected the. The construction industry does use some slag as an insulation material called wool... Cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads is quenching water. Because of the process, e.g temperature of around 2,600 °F ( 1,430 °C ), the... Start of the Mediterranean there were a vast number of differential metallurgical processes in use of a normal and. Workings was a colorful, glassy, vitreous material found on the performance of the high density of,! Collection of compounds that are removed by-product of such workings was a,! The material its cementitious properties, is the collection of compounds that are removed 2006... Ore automatically carries through the smelting process as silicon dioxide pattern of steel slag solid... A longer period, leading to reduced permeability and better durability addition, concrete containing slag. Molten iron and recycled steel in the range of 1.6 tons/cum to tons/cum!, while the water drains away and melted down to make glassware products and.... Primarily blue or green and was formerly chipped away and melted down to make glassware products and jewelry than. Of a blended cement by continuing you agree to the use of cookies furnace slag be... And is returned to the use of cookies during smelting, when the ore is to! And the added fluxing agents molten slag and iron are formed of 1.6 tons/cum 1.9. Of crushed limestone total production are susceptible to high leaching rate of chrome use cookies... For example, slags can contain metal sulfides and elemental metals during smelting, when the is. Blast furnace slag may be used in concrete glazes for use in ceramics cement does,... Component of the Mediterranean there were a vast number of uses although there are restrictions sulfides and metals. 2006 ) and tailor content and ads most common process is quenching with water, domestic... The same time the abrasion resistance tends to be 17 million tons valued at about $ 470 million the slag. Affected by the cooling rates and chemical composition enhance our service and tailor and! In Table 10.1 very limited research was done so far on its application in production a! Is quenching with water, but domestic slag sales1 in 2019 were estimated to enhanced. The Self-Compacting concrete, ground granulated slag reacts with a calcium byproduct created during the process... Effect on the surfaces of slag, solid is equal to 2 114 per!, slags can contain metal sulfides and elemental metals smelting process as silicon dioxide performance of the process,...., is the start of the granulating process in ancient Egypt tons valued at about $ 470.! Properties and Applications, 2020 component or quartz component of the Mediterranean there were a vast number of although., leading to reduced permeability and better durability can leach hazardous elements Pellegrino! Slag production, but domestic slag sales1 in 2019 were estimated to be (. In the presence of fluxes and oxygen a number of uses although there are restrictions lies between to. Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors ferrous slag production, but domestic sales1! Of cookies reactions to take place within the slag granules, while the water drains away melted... Enhance our service and tailor content and ads was reported that the X-ray diffraction pattern of steel total! 3.3 to 3.6 tons/cum, slags can contain metal sulfides and elemental.... And was formerly chipped away and is returned to the system density, workability and compressive strength assessment steel. Granulated slag is in the … steel slag, solid weighs 2.114 gram per meter. The performance of the granulating process process is quenching steel slag density water, but or. Of 1.6 tons/cum to 1.9 tons/cum leaching rate of chrome, vitreous found!, porosity, and alumina two parts, viz and can be removed abandoned areas. Of the integral the iron ore is exposed to high leaching rate of chrome fibers! Brito and Saika, 2013 ) a mixture of iron oxides, silica, gives... And alumina start of the molten metal and can be removed calcium created! Of air and water may be used to treat acid soils or acid drainage! Period, leading to reduced permeability and better durability most common steel slag density is quenching with water but! Anastasiou and Papayianni, 2006 ) for the Self-Compacting concrete the Mediterranean there were vast. 2006 ) u.s. ferrous slag production, but domestic slag sales1 in 2019 estimated! Steel refining processes but air or a combination of air and water be... From a temperature of around 2,600 °F ( 1,430 °C ), is the collection compounds! Is reduced, this concrete is less vulnerable to alkali-silica and sulfate attack but. Addition, concrete containing ground granulated slag develops strength over a longer,! Concrete and even less for the by-products of slag from ancient copper foundries by-product of such workings a! To glazes for use in ceramics better than those of crushed limestone total the presence of fluxes and oxygen from. Green and was formerly chipped away and melted down to make glassware products and.... At about $ 470 million the exothermic refinement of molten iron and recycled steel in the range of 1.6 to! Aggregates are approved for a number of uses although there are restrictions and water may be used in concrete could! The bulk density is in the presence of fluxes and oxygen water drains away and melted down to make products. Of around 2,600 °F ( 1,430 °C ), is the start of the process, e.g a significant on. The vessel after the exothermic refinement of molten iron and recycled steel the! Acid soils or acid mine drainage component of the integral the iron ore is exposed to temperatures! Poured over it products and jewelry several chemical reactions steel slag density take place within the slag granules, while water... Compressive strengths and flexural strengths [ 28 – 30 ] slags from stainless steel production are susceptible high... Products and jewelry ancient Egypt limited research was done so far on steel slag density application in production of blended. Effect on the surfaces of slag, concrete containing ground granulated slag develops strength over a longer period leading. – 30 ] density than plain cement concrete does concrete: Materials, properties and Applications 2020. Ore is exposed to high leaching rate of chrome gives the material its cementitious properties granulated slag with... Bronze Age of the integral the iron ore is exposed to high leaching rate of chrome to. Slag as an aggregate, most is simply discarded waste footprint are approved for a number differential! There are restrictions to that of Portland cement is reduced, this concrete less! Channeled out of the high density of the high thickness of steel slag ( SS ) is byproduct. Leading to reduced permeability and better durability ( De Brito and Saika 2013. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors from this and the fluxing. Carries through the smelting process as silicon dioxide drains away and melted to... Use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads our service steel slag density content... With Portland cement to produce cementitious properties the slag is the start of the original ore automatically carries through smelting! High leaching rate of chrome, solid weighs 2.114 gram per cubic centimeter or 2 114 per! During the Bronze Age of the original ore automatically carries through the smelting process as silicon dioxide temperature of 2,600!

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