In the months that followed, roughly 25,000 aftershocks were located on the Denali and Totshunda faults, revealing a surface rupture that was 325 km (200 miles) long. Earthquake - Earthquake - Methods of reducing earthquake hazards: Considerable work has been done in seismology to explain the characteristics of the recorded ground motions in earthquakes. The Denali Fault has a lower seismic risk, with a maximum Such approach is urgently needed for complex scenarios, like the historical one, but still, in many cases around the world, historical centers scenarios are not properly investigated according this holistic risk analysis standpoint. Largest aftershocks of the Nenana Mountain earthquake were the two magnitude 3.8 events. Using the program FPFIT [Reasenberg and Oppenheimer, 1985], Ratchkovski et al. The 1964 Good Friday Earthquake is an example. However, the duration of shaking associated with a magnitude 9.2 mega-thrust earthquake would be longer, and this is also factored into the seismic evaluations. Some of the achievements of the NEHRP over the last 25 years, such as the survival of the Trans-Alaska oil pipeline during the 2002 Denali earthquake, are based on earth science and earthquake engineering research. Eastern Denali Fault surface trace map, eastern Alaska and Yukon, Canada. [4] The Denali fault earthquake had 340 km of surface rupture and was the largest strike-slip earthquake in North It was evident, during damage assessment evaluations after the Denali fault event, that the residents of the smaller at-risk communities had little understanding of the earthquake hazard, had not implemented measures to mitigate damage, and were unprepared to respond to the consequences of damage. The Kantishna cluster is a group of small, shallow earthquakes—not far from Wonder Lake—at the southwestern end of a shear zone. Such approach is urgently needed for complex scenarios, like the historical one, but still, in many cases around the world, historical centers scenarios are not properly investigated according this holistic risk analysis standpoint. Edwards, M. Rahman, H. Ryu, ... the second was close to the community of Mundaring east of the Darling fault. The cause? Major earthquakes (those with a magnitude range of 7.0-7.9) occur where a significant amount of stress has accumulated prior to being released—along a plate boundary or along major faults. around the Denali fault is sparsely populated, it is the same type of fault as the San Andreas fault in California, which is surrounded by densely populated cities. One example of a major fault is the Denali fault, which cuts across the state in the Alaska Range (labelled on map on reverse). Measurements Freymueller has made across the Alaska Range before the 2002 earthquake show movement across the Denali Fault of 6-8 millimeters per year (1/4 to 1/3 inch per year). Following the Mw 7.9 earthquake on the Denali and Totschunda faults on 3 November 2002, we conducted a reconnaissance of the region to investigate geotechnical and surface rupture features of the event. This was never more evident than in the fall of 2002, when two large earthquakes occurred. of 1969 and the San Fernando earthquake of 1971, in 1972, Cluff and his team of earthquake geologists developed fault displacement design criteria for the Trans-Alaska Pipeline. [2004] determined focal mechanisms for earthquakes before and after the Denali fault earthquake, then estimated Geoscientists are able to identify particular areas of risk and, if there is sufficient information, to make probabilistic forecasts about the likelihood of earthquakes happening in a specified area over a specified period. AEIC has four seismic stations in Denali: (from west to east, see map) Castle Rocks (CAST), Kantishna Hills (KTH) on Wickersham Dome, Thoroughfare Mountain (TRF), and McKinley (MCK) near the park entrance. In 2002, the M 7.9 earthquake ruptured a portion of the Denali fault east of the park to produce a horizontal offset of up to 8.8 m (29 feet). The 2002 M7.9 Denali fault earthquake resulted in 340 km of ruptures along three separate faults, causing widespread liquefaction in the fluvial deposits of the alpine valleys of the Alaska Range and eastern lowlands of the Tanana River. ... slightly larger than the magnitude 9.0 Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake that devastated northern Sumatra in December 2004 and generated a tsunami that killed more than 280,000 people. Dr. Jeff Freymueller of the Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska Fairbanks, has been measuring the motion and deformation of the Earth near the Denali Fault by repeating measurements of the position of a survey marker in the ground over a period of years. OCLC Number: 64385498: Notes: Title from Web page (viewed Feb. 24, 2006). Until then, the fault can be studied by measuring the steady deformation of the Earth that surrounds all active faults. Geologic observations from the Denali fault could prove invaluable to mitigating earthquake risk and saving lives in Alaska and elsewhere. The November 3, 2002 Denali fault earthquake, which is the largest inland event ever recorded in central Alaska, occurred along an arcuate segment of the right‐lateral strike‐slip Denali fault. Similarly, the largest recorded earthquake in North American history also occurred on a subduction zone fault … The typical example of this kind of earthquake was the Hyogoken Nambu Earthquake in 1995, the Niigataken Chuetsu Earthquake in 2004, and the Noto Hanto Earthquake in 2007. The 2002 Denali EQ, the Trans-Alaska Oil Pipeline and EQ Hazard Mitigation On Nov 3, 2002 a large magnitude 7.9 earthquake happened along the Denali fault, about 160km south of Fairbanks/Alaska. Larger earthquakes tend to shake longer and harder and therefore cause more damage to structures1. Scientists use these data to study what drives the motion on the fault, and to make estimates of the long-term rate of motion of the Denali Fault through the park. The epicenter was located west of Nenana Mountain on the Denali fault… The Pacific plate is moving northwest relative to Alaska, causing many earthquakes along the interface. of the Denali fault earthquake, with clockwise rotation ranging from about 14 in the western part of the rupture to as much as 38 in the eastern part. Areas of active faulting like central Alaska continuously undergo slow deformation between earthquakes, and experience sudden shifts when earthquakes happen. In 2002, the M 7.9 earthquake ruptured a portion of the Denali fault east of the park to produce a horizontal offset of up to 8.8 m (29 feet). Effect of the Denali Fault Rupture on the Trans-Alaska Pipeline ; Response of the Above-Ground Trans-Alaska Pipeline to the Magnitude 7.9 Denali Fault Earthquake ; Assessment of the Below-Ground Trans-Alaska Pipeline Following the Magnitude 7.9 Denali Fault Earthquake Earthquake forecasting and prediction is an active topic of geological research. A network of 26 1-Hz GPS stations that observed sur-face wave displacements due to the Denali Fault event November 2002, the powerful magnitude 7.9 Denali Fault earthquake struck south-central Alaska, rupturing the ground beneath the zigzagging Trans-Alaska Oil Pipeline. To understand the risk that different areas of the U.S. face for earthquake hazards, we need to know where faults are and how they behave. We map the 385-kilometer (km) long surface trace of the right-lateral, strike-slip Denali Fault between the Totschunda-Denali Fault intersection in Alaska, United States and the village of Haines Junction, Yukon, Canada. > $7 billion dollars damage Reasons for huge loss….. and minor earthquakes on the subduction zone in a cluster pattern. The pipeline crosses the Denali fault some 90 miles south of Fairbanks. Alaska has experienced four federally declared disasters from November 2002 to August 2003. Earthquakes can cause impacts far from their source. Investigating the seismic response of regular and irregular urban structures can provide useful information for input to any preparedness plan. In addition, CAST, KTH, and MCK are instrumented with accelerometers to measure ground acceleration. On November 3, 2002 a devastating earthquake rattled Alaska. Denali National Park is located very close to the Denali fault. OCLC Number: 64385498: Notes: Title from Web page (viewed Feb. 24, 2006). These quakes are associated with the northern extension of the subduction edge of the Pacific plate and its dive beneath the North American crust. Largest aftershocks of the Nenana Mountain earthquake were the two magnitude 3.8 events. 6, pp. During the afternoon of November 3, 2002, the water in Seattle’s Lake Union suddenly began sloshing hard enough to knock houseboats off their moorings. It can last for years to decades after a large earthquake, and its changes with time provide important information about the physical properties of the Earth. 94, no. The earthquake caused an offset of nearly 6 meters (20 feet) where it crossed … As crustal blocks slide horizontally past one another, strike slip faults occur; when blocks are pushed together, one block is thrust up or down along the fault line. The National Hazard Maps use all available data to estimate the chances of shaking (of different strengths and One of them was the Denali 7.9 earthquake, the largest earth- earthquakes, including the 1964 Prince William Sound 9.2 earthquake. Although earthquakes cause death and destruction through such … With more than 20,000 earthquakes reported annually, Alaska is by far the most seismically active state. As the stress mounts along the Denali fault in the park, and as more time elapses without the stress release of a strong earthquake, the probability of a big earthquake in the park continues to rise. The basic structure of methods for estimating hazard was developed by engineers needing quantitative answers despite the wide range of uncertainties ( 1 ). The 2002 Denali Fault earthquake caused changes in the observed motions all across central Alaska. The 800-mile-long Trans-Alaska Pipeline, which starts at Prudhoe Bay on Alaska’s North Slope, can carry 2 million barrels of oil per day south to the port of Valdez for export, equal to roughly 10% of the daily consumption in the United States in 20171. Large earthquakes often cause considerable damage to infrastructure and structures. Selected focal depths for the ... 2004) and so were modified for the effects of regolith response. Hazard estimates have important implications for society, providing a basis for building codes, insurance rate structures, risk assessments, and public policies to mitigate earthquake risk. Areas affected by liquefaction are largely confined to Holocene alluvial deposits, man-made embankments, and backfills. earthquake, which would result in a maximum PGA of 0.17g at Pebble. Within the park, he sets up an instrument to record data at each survey point for a few days each year, and uses these year-to-year changes in position to study the movements of the Earth. The destruction caused by an earthquake depends on the magnitude and … Continue reading "Mitigation of Earthquakes" Seismicity in interior Alaska north of the Denali fault is dominated by shallow events (see blue dots on map above). The Denali Fault, the fastest moving and most active fault in Interior Alaska, cuts through the heart of the Alaska Range and Denali National Park and Preserve. Understanding the risk and getting ready for a large earthquake on the Hayward Fault like the one depicted in this scenario can help other at-risk communities prepare for similar events that are possible in their area. A T eleseismic Study of the 2002 Denali Fault, Alaska, Earthquake and Implications for Rapid Strong-Motion Estimation Chen Ji,a) Don V .Helmber ger,a) and Da vid J.W ald, b) M.EERI Slip histories for the 2002 M7.9 Denali fault, Alaska, ear thquak e are de-rived rapidl y from global teleseismic w avefor m data. High precision Global Positioning System (GPS) surveying can now measure positions of survey points with a precision of a few millimeters. underground fault. Motion on the Denali Fault and nearby related fault structures is responsible for many of the large earthquakes in central Alaska, and for the high elevation (20,310 feet, 6190 meters) of Denali (previously known as Mt. Movement at shear zones have generated up to magnitude (M) 7.3 earthquakes. A major earthquake along the fault could cause the pipeline to rupture, spilling crude oil into the surrounding environment. The earthquake caused an offset of nearly 6 meters (20 feet) where it crossed the Richardson Highway and Trans-Alaska Pipeline. Although the biggest earthquakes occur where plates rub together, some faults only become apparent when an earthquake occurs. 19 Cascadia: Paradigm Shift (1984-87) 1976 1990 1996 PGA (%g) with 2% PE in 50 years Even several years after the earthquake, average speeds remain several times higher than the pre-earthquake rates at many sites. Every event is briefly reviewed by the on-duty seismologist, and carefully relocated by an analyst. al., 1994]. At many of the sites inside the park, the motions after the 2002 earthquake are now slowing down to nearly the preearthquake rates. Geologist Wes Wallace of the University of Alaska s Geophysical Institute took this photo of the Denali Fault before the earthquake. California’s Earthquake Risk Shifting Focus: A Look at California’s Earthquake Risk. The interaction of the Pacific and North American plates across southern Alaska creates a variety of sources for seismic activity. The 2002 Denali, Alaska Earthquake. of the Denali fault earthquake, with clockwise rotation ranging from about 14 in the western part of the rupture to as much as 38 in the eastern part. Large earthquakes like this one cause significant displacements of the surface far away from the fault. Pacific Nankai h Metropolitan 3. The November 2002 earthquake had a magnitude of 7.9 and caused a surface rupture 325 km (~200 miles) long, mostly on the central Denali Fault (see red line on map below). We know a fault exists only if it has produced an earthquake or it has left a recognizable mark on the earth’s surface. The Good Friday Earthquake—a 1964 magnitude 9.2 event located in Prince William Sound—remains the largest earthquake ever recorded in the U.S. and the secondlargest earthquake ever recorded worldwide. Most people in Interior Alaska were reminded of the fault’s earthquake potential when it ruptured on November 3, 2002. Postseismic deformation is the general term used for the movements that follow and are triggered by earthquakes. The earthquake began about 80 km (50 miles) east of the Denali Visitor Center, and ruptured eastward along the Denali Fault, and was followed by thousands of aftershocks. The epicenters (point on the earth surface where the quakes originate) of each of these large earthquakes was about 50 km (30 miles) east of the park, on the Denali fault. The evaluation of the seismic risk is considered essential to define strategic urban and emergency planning management actions and should be based on the analysis of the buildings, the exposed population and their emergency interaction. It began with thrusting on the previously unrecognized Susitna Glacier fault, continued with right-slip … Abstract An earthquake can be described as natural phenomena that cause shaking or trembling of the earth’s surface. By continuing to browse this site you agree to us using cookies as described in About Cookies.. Studies of the fault at various locations have yielded a wide range of slip rates, but the best estimates generally converge on a maximum rate of about 10 mm/yr. The criteria consisted of location, type, and amount of fault displacement at the Denali and other fault crossings. The largest surface offsets of 8.8 meters (29 feet) were observed farther to the east. Fortunately, no one was seriously injured, due to the small population located 3 November 2002 Denali Fault earthquake, a large-magnitude (M=7.9) shallow strike-slip event, generated large-amplitude surface waves observable by GPS to a distance of thousands of kilometers [Larson et al, 2003]. The pattern of shallow, intermediate, and deep events in south-central Alaska highlights the shallow angle of the subduction. 2 San Andreas ... Denali fault, Alaska Magnitude 7.9 2002 ... 2004 2010 2011. However, full ANSS instrumentation on either end of the 2002 rupture is critical if this goal is to be achieved. There have been smaller earthquakes in … As the effects of the 2002 earthquake continue to dissipate, continued measurements of GPS sites in and around the park will provide an invaluable record of how the crust and mantle in central Alaska behave. Automatic locations are available within five minutes on AEIC’s webpage. Using the program FPFIT [Reasenberg and Oppenheimer, 1985], Ratchkovski et al. In the Aleutian Islands, where the subduction angle is much steeper, the shallow-todeep earthquake pattern is more compact. COUNTERMEASURES AGAINST LARGE-SCALE EARTHQUAKES The main cause of many casualties in the Hyogoken Nambu Earthquake in 1995 was However, the duration of shaking associated with a magnitude 9.2 mega-thrust earthquake would be longer, and this is also factored into the seismic evaluations. The Nenana Mountain and Denali Fault earthquakes generated a vigorous aftershock sequence. Great earthquakes (those with M greater than 8.0) typically occur along the Pacific-North American plate boundary far south of the park. The red line represents the fault, which runs east toward Mt. Although the fault there shifted about 14 feet, the pipeline did not break, averting a major economic and environmental disaster. In phases, three models The 2002 M7.9 Denali fault earthquake resulted in 340 km of ruptures along three separate faults, causing widespread liquefaction in the fluvial deposits of the alpine valleys of the Alaska Range and eastern lowlands of the Tanana River. Therefore, in the pre-earthquake phase, preparedness, mitigation and prevention practice into seismic risk reduction. S58–S71, 2004. It was the main fault along which the 2002 Denali earthquake occurred, which was measured as a magnitude of 7.9 M w. During the afternoon of November 3, 2002, the water in Seattle's Lake Union suddenly began sloshing hard enough to knock houseboats off their moorings. The main shock occurred about 80 km (50 miles) east of the Denali Visitor Center. Complex, powerful motions of tectonic plates and crustal blocks generate earthquakes throughout Alaska, including many in and around Denali National Park and Preserve. [2004] determined focal mechanisms for earthquakes before and after the Denali fault earthquake, then estimated In 2002, a magnitude 7.9 earthquake struck the Denali fault, one of the lar… Mitigating this damage is thus of paramount importance in reducing the overall risk posed by earthquakes. These trained individuals greatly enhanced our State Post-Disaster Damage Assessment team's capability and credibility. Proceedings of the Sixth U.S. Conference and Workshop on Lifeline Earthquake Engineering, TCLEE 2003: Advancing Mitigation Technologies and Disaster Response, held in Long Beach, California, August 10-13, 2003. G. Carver, G. Plafker, M. Metz et al., “Surface rupture on the Denali Fault interpreted from tree damage during the 1912 Delta river Mw 7.2–7.4 earthquake: implications for the 2002 Denali Fault earthquake slip distribution,” Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, vol. To monitor seismic activity, staff from the Alaska Earthquake Information Center (AEIC) install and operate seismic stations across the state. BACKGROUNDER • ASSESSING AND MANAGING SEISMIC RISK. On average, Alaska has had one M 8+ earthquake every 13 years, one M 7-8 earthquake every two years, and six M 6-7 earthquakes per year (Alaska Seismic Hazards Safety Commission, 2012). Mitigating earthquake risk in Australia M.R. Following the Denali Fault earthquake, adjacent fault segments have been stressed, increasing the likelihood of additional earthquakes on those segments. According to Ford, “The Denali Fault earthquake was the ‘big one’ for Alaska.” The cracks in the Earth’s surface along parts of the fault were up to 6.7 meters (22 feet) wide, which would have caused considerable damage to a more heavily populated area, such as California. During this reporting period, the NEHRP celebrated its 25th anniversary. Lasted 10 minutes (longest lasting earthquake in history) 229,866 dead, which includes 42,883 missing. We map the 385-kilometer (km) long surface trace of the right-lateral, strike-slip Denali Fault between the Totschunda-Denali Fault intersection in Alaska, United States and the village of Haines Junction, Yukon, Canada. For better understanding of all the possibilities of earthquake risk reduction, it is important to classify them in terms of the role that each one of them could play. Earthquakes cause lots of damage to property and even result in deaths. The evaluation of the seismic risk is considered essential to define strategic urban and emergency planning management actions and should be based on the analysis of the buildings, the exposed population and their emergency interaction. The AEIC located over 1,000 aftershocks of the M 6.7 event prior to the M 7.9 mainshock and over 35,000 aftershocks through the end of 2004. The 7.9 Denali fault earthquake in 2002 revealed an unknown fault now named the Susitna Glacier fault. Measuring the deformation of the earth related to this tectonic activity helps scientists understand the 2002 earthquake and the tectonic forces that caused it. The section of the Denali fault cutting across the park has not experienced a major earthquake within the last ~100 years. Earthquakes shake the ground daily, but most are minor local events. Effect of the Denali Fault Rupture on the Trans-Alaska Pipeline ; Response of the Above-Ground Trans-Alaska Pipeline to the Magnitude 7.9 Denali Fault Earthquake ; Assessment of the Below-Ground Trans-Alaska Pipeline Following the Magnitude 7.9 Denali Fault Earthquake The M W (moment magnitude) 7.9 Denali fault earthquake on 3 November 2002 was associated with 340 kilometers of surface rupture and was the largest strike-slip earthquake in North America in almost 150 years. Water in pools, ponds, and bayous as far away as Texas and Louisiana splashed for nearly half an hour. Real time ground motion data from ~400 seismic stations across the state are used to identify and characterize each earthquake in Alaska. The longest earthquake ruptures on strike-slip faults, like the San Andreas Fault (1857, 1906), the North Anatolian Fault in Turkey (1939) and the Denali Fault in Alaska (2002), are about half to one third as long as the lengths along subducting plate margins, and those along normal faults are even shorter. Mitigation Note how the blue dots scattered at the top of the map track roughly northeast-trending parallel lines. The fault's rate of displacement varies from 1 mm to 35 mm per year. The Denali fault earthquake (Mw = 7.9) of November 3, 2002 was the largest strike–slip earthquake (Eberhart-Phillips et al., 2003) that occurred in North America in almost 150 years. Such knowledge is needed to predict ground motions in future earthquakes so that earthquake-resistant structures can be designed. It is unknown whether some of this stress is being relieved by the cluster of frequent shallow earthquakes in the Kantishna area. McKinley) that dominates the park landscape. Hayes through the Alaska Range, and the ovals are the epicenters of two earthquakes, the magnitude 6.7 earthquake of Oct. 23, 2002, and the Denali Fault earthquake of Nov. 3, 2002. Remove maintenance message Alaska is the most geologically active part of the United States. The 434 mile slip-strike fault gave off a 7.9 magnitude earthquake. For example, the Tohoku, Japan, earthquake of 2011 occurred on a subduction zone fault and it was over magnitude 9, making it one of the largest earthquakes ever recorded. Once a fault has been identified, the next step is to determine how it behaves. But once in awhile, we experience larger earthquakes too; in 1868, Kaʻū experienced a quake estimated at M 7.9 that knocked down every wall and building in the district, and took the lives of 81 … Geoscientists are able to identify particular areas of risk and, if there is sufficient information, to make probabilistic forecasts about the likelihood of earthquakes happening in a specified area over a specified period. The Denali Fault earthquake sequence resulted in about 340 km of surface rupture (Haeussler and others, 2004) (figs. Denali fault earthquake to evaluate structural damage in that event. The major plates move relative to each other at rates that are typically a few centimeters per year, which is easily measured using GPS. Earthquake Risk in Alaska. The earthquake began about 80 km (50 miles) east of the Denali Visitor Center, and ruptured eastward along the Denali Fault, and was followed by thousands of aftershocks. The chances of experiencing shaking from an earthquake and/or having property damage is dependent on many different factors. Shortly after midday on November 3, 2002, a magnitude 7.9 earthquake ruptured the Denali Fault in the rugged Alaska Range, about 90 miles south of Fairbanks. The Denali Fault has a lower seismic risk, with a maximum Before allowing the installation of scientific equipment in a national park (via research permit), staff from the park conduct an impact study and provide a period for public comment. If the automatic location algorithms indicate a large earthquake, the seismologist on duty responds immediately (seismologists are on call 24/7) and issues an information release—in part to help emergency management personnel respond to significant events. This TCLEE Monograph presents 107 state-of-the-art papers on the effects of natural and technological hazards on lifelines. It was the largest inland earthquake to hit North America in the last 150 years. Although people tend to view the Earth as static and stable between earthquakes, every point is actually moving slowly as Earth’s tectonic plates move around. Each of these seismic stations is instrumented with a broadband seismometer to detect ground motion, a data digitizer to record displacement, a radio to transmit the data, and solar panels to help power the equipment. About Cookies, including instructions on how to turn off cookies if you wish to do so. Postseismic deformation results from different physical processes, including continued slip on the fault plane or its deeper extension and viscous flow in the Earth’s mantle. Each seismic station transmits data to Fairbanks, where seismologists continuously monitor ground motion. The section of the fault in the park is just as active as the section to the east, and at some point in the future it will also break in a large earthquake. April 9 2004 Rev F Page 1 Oil and Water System Performance – Denali M 7.9 Earthquake of November 3, 2002 By John Eidinger1 and Mark Yashinsky2 1.0 Introduction The November 3, 2002, magnitude 7.9 Denali, Alaska earthquake struck through rural Alaska. Alaska not only experiences the most earthquakes in the United States, but also the strongest. One example of a major fault is the Denali fault, which cuts across the state in the Alaska Range (labelled on map on reverse). It illuminates earthquake mechanics and hazards of large strike-slip faults. Analysts also scan waveforms to find earthquakes that were not detected by the automated system. Ongoing tectonic processes are constantly shifting and changing the land. To send these continuous ground motion data to a central location for analysis, AEIC also operates radio repeaters within the park at Double Mountain, Mount Healy, and the Murie Science and Learning Center. earthquake recorded). The Denali Fault extends across the heart of the Alaska Range, passing just north of the town of Cantwell, through the Muldrow Glacier at the base of the north face of Denali, and continues to the west. The earthquake lasted about 100 seconds. earthquake, which would result in a maximum PGA of 0.17g at Pebble. This presents a rare opportunity to catch a major earthquake in the act. Alaska’s Denali Fault was on the move, jostling the state with a magnitude 7.9 earthquake. ATTACHMENT SEMINAR ON DENALI FAULT EARTHQUAKE Lloyd Cluff and Norm Abrahamson Pacific Gas and Electric Company Date: January 23, 2004 Place: One White Flint North Building, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852 Economic and environmental disaster regolith response south of the mitigating risk in the 2004 denali fault earthquake ’ s Denali fault some 90 miles south of Pacific! It illuminates earthquake mechanics and hazards of large strike-slip faults abstract an earthquake and/or having property damage is of! 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