Weight. Pronghorns are true American natives, found nowhere else in the world. Males mark territory with a preorbital scent gland which is on the sides of the head. Breeding takes place from mid-September until October. Range A. a. mexicana The protection of habitat and hunting restrictions have allowed pronghorn numbers to recover to an estimated population between 500,000 and 1,000,000 since the 1930s. [14], Prior to the arrival of the Europeans, the pronghorn was particularly abundant in the region of the Plains Indians and the region of the indigenous people of the Northwest Plateau and was hunted as a principal food source by the local tribes. Its cheeks, belly, chest, rump and the insides of its legs are white. A subspecies known as the Sonoran pronghorn (A. a. sonoriensis) occurs in Arizona and Mexico. Prior to 1800, there were 35 to The scientific name for pronghorns is Antilocapra americana. They weigh 42-59kg (92-129lb) while females are smaller at between 40 and 50kg (87-111lb). [7] Three other genera (Capromeryx,[8][9] Stockoceros[10][11] and Tetrameryx[12]) existed when humans entered North America but are now extinct. Females care for their fawns from birth until 1 to 1.5 years, until they are independent. This donation was contingent upon the government's adding 30,000 acres of surrounding public lands. Unlike deer, pronghorns possess a gallbladder.[24]. Pronghorns are built for speed, not for jumping. The tail is up to 105 mm long and ears are up to 143 mm long. Each horn of the pronghorn is composed of a slender, laterally flattened blade of bone which is thought to grow from the frontal bones of the skull, or from the subcutaneous tissues of the scalp, forming a permanent core. You will not need the heavy end of the spectrum with the coppers, if you are just going to shoot antelope with it. Clark was the first European to kill a pronghorn, and described his experience as follows:[18]. They breed in mid-September, and the doe carries her fawn until late May. they have roamed the plains and deserts of North America for at least the last million years in substantially the same form. They weight around 80 -110 pounds, on average, although their leg and shoulder bones are quite heavy in proportion to take the stress induced when they dash around in rough country at high-speed. The females are the same height as males but weigh 34–48 kg (75–110 lb). The pronghorn is the symbol of the American Society of Mammalogists. It does not belong to the antelope or the goat family and neither is it related to African antelopes. The gestation period is around six weeks longer than that of the white-tailed deer. Their lifespan is typically up to 10 years, rarely 15 years. [27], Pronghorns have a gestation period of 7–8 months, which is longer than is typical for North American ungulates. Pronghorn have excellent vision: they can see movement as far as 3 miles (5 kilometers) away. Males have a horn sheath about 12.5–43 cm (4.9–16.9 in) (average 25 cm (9.8 in)) long with a prong. It is the only animal that has branching horns and sheds them annually. Pronghorns prefer open, expansive terrain at elevations varying between 900 and 1,800 m (3,000 and 5,900 ft), with the densest populations in areas receiving around 25–40 cm (9.8–15.7 in) of rainfall per year. These weights are close to average for pronghorn antelope killed in Wyoming. In their first 21–26 days, fawns spend time hiding in vegetation. By the 1920s, hunting pressure had reduced the pronghorn population to about 13,000. Its cheeks, belly, chest, rump and the insides of its legs are white. [23] As in the Giraffidae, skin covers the bony cores, but in the pronghorn, it develops into a keratinous sheath which is shed and regrown annually. Females tend to weigh less than the males. [20][21][22], At the turn of the 20th century, members of the wildlife conservation group Boone and Crockett Club had determined that the extinction of the pronghorn was likely. Additionally, pronghorn hooves have two long, cushioned, pointed toes which help absorb shock when running at high speeds. That being said, if you want to go that route, get it in a longer action, to allow for seating the longer bullets easier. Females form dominance hierarchies which including circular relationships. I really like that cartridge for deer and antelope. [28] They also have an extremely light bone structure and hollow hair. The pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) is a unique North American mammal. During the Pleistocene epoch, about 12 antilocaprid species existed in North America. It is not a true antelope, which is found in Africa and southeast Asia. Field-dressed weights of the male and female antelope carcasses studied averaged 76.7 pounds (range 65 to 86 pounds) and 68.5 pounds (range 64 to 72 pounds), respectively (Table 1). Since their ranges are sometimes affected by sheep ranchers' fences, they can be seen going under fences, sometimes at high speed. "Inciting" females behave as samplers until estrous, and then incite conflicts between males, watching and then mating with the winners. Adult males either defend a fixed territory that females may enter, or defend a harem of females. It does not belong to the antelope or the goat family and neither is it related to African antelopes. [36] Fawns interact with their mothers for 20–25 minutes a day; this continues even when the fawn joins a nursery. The animals are surrounded by the hunters, and gently driven towards this pen, in which they imperceptibly find themselves enclosed, and are then at the mercy of the hunters. They eat a wide variety of plant foods, often including plants unpalatable or toxic to domestic livestock, though they also compete with them for food. Oregon is home to about 25,000 pronghorn. In a migration study conducted by Lava Lake Institute for Science and Conservation and the Wildlife Conservation Society, at one point, the migration corridor bottlenecks to an area only 200 yards wide. Pronghorns are the big game animals of North America with branched horns. The Sonoran pronghorn has an estimated population of fewer than 300 in the United States and 200-500 in Mexico, while there are approximately 200 Peninsula pronghorn in Baja California. They can run at more than 53 miles an hour, leaving pursuing coyotes and bobcats in the dust. Life and Death It’s common for antelope to reach 10 years of age. Commonly known as an antelope, the Pronghorn ( Antilocapra americana) is an even toed or hoofed mammal found in the plains of the western United States of America.The Pronghorn in america is mislabeled as an antelope, which is an old world or African species of Antelope. The orbits (eye sockets) are prominent and set high on the skull. ", indigenous people of the Northwest Plateau, Lava Lake Institute for Science and Conservation, "Pronghorns - Survivors of the American Savanna", "Inferring the mammal tree: Species-level sets of phylogenies for questions in ecology, evolution, and conservation", "About ASM | American Society of Mammalogists", "Malpai Cooperative Fence Project - Pronghorn 4th Quarter 2012", "Pronghorn Antelope Migration Route: 160 Miles Plus : Discovery News", "Pronghorn migration circuit found in Idaho - NatGeo News Watch", "Pronghorn females choose vigorous mates", Courtship in the pronghorn (Antilocapra americana), New Long Distance Migration Route for Pronghorn Found in Idaho by WCS and Lava Lake Institute, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pronghorn&oldid=991748841, Articles with dead external links from January 2018, Articles with permanently dead external links, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the New International Encyclopedia, Taxonbars using multiple manual Wikidata items, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 1 December 2020, at 16:56. Pronghorn's speed may be the legacy of past [Extinct] predators such as the American Cheetah (which would make sense) RACING at top speed across the Western plains, as close to flying as four hooves can take it, an American pronghorn in motion is a biological marvel running nearly 60 miles an hour, faster than anything else on the continent. [20][25] While it is often cited as the second-fastest land animal, second only to the African cheetah,[26] it can sustain high speeds longer than cheetahs. No major range-wide threats exist, although localized declines are taking place, particularly to the Sonoran pronghorn, mainly as a result of livestock grazing, the construction of roads, fences, and other barriers that prevent access to historical habitat, illegal hunting, insufficient forage and water, and lack of recruitment. [36] The females nurse, groom, and lead their young to food and water, as well as keep predators away from them. The feet have two hooves, with no dewclaws. The pronghorn is the fastest land mammal in the Western Hemisphere, being built for maximum predator evasion through running. Pronghorn on The IUCN Red List site -, http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/1677/0. Though not an antelope, it is often known colloquially in North America as the American antelope, prong buck, pronghorn antelope, prairie antelope, or simply antelope[4] because it closely resembles the true antelopes of the Old World and fills a similar ecological niche due to parallel evolution. [6] University of Idaho zoologist John Byers has suggested the pronghorn evolved its running ability to escape from now-extinct predators such as the American cheetah, since its speed greatly exceeds that of all extant North American predators. The pronghorn is a North American mammal more closely related to the giraffe than to similarly appearing true antelopes. Antilo means antelope and capra means a male goat. [2] Some recent decline has occurred in a few localized populations,[20] due to bluetongue disease which is spread from sheep, but the overall trend has been positive. [2], Three subspecies are considered endangered in all (A. a. sonoriensis, A. a. peninsularis), or part of their ranges (A. a. mexicana). Big Game Hunting. They are also called pronghorn antelopes, prong buck, or just antelopes. [7] They also have very large eyes with a 320° field of vision. According to the IUCN Red List the total proghorn population size is around 1 million individuals. [19], Pronghorns have distinct white fur on their rumps, sides, breasts, bellies, and across their throats. Pronghorns form mixed-sex herds in the winter. The outer sheath falls off in the autumn and grows back every summer. HEIGHT. Introduced livestock may overgraze in areas shared with pronghorn, reducing cover and the amount of food. Dr. Scott Bergen of the Wildlife Conservation Society says "This study shows that pronghorn are the true marathoners of the American West. [20] In one study, forbs comprised 62% of their diet, shrubs 23%, and grasses 15%,[20] while in another, cacti comprised 40%, grass 22%, forbs 20%, and shrubs 18%. As a member of the superfamily Giraffoidea, the pronghorn's closest living relatives are the giraffes and okapi. [36] In these systems, territorial males have access to better resources than bachelor males. Pronghorns come together in mixed-gender herds in winter. WEIGHT. Females form dominance hierarchies with few circular relationships. The timing, length, and seasonal movement patterns vary regionally. [2] Mexican animals are listed on CITES Appendix I. Pronghorns have game-animal status in all of the western states of the United States, and permits are required to trap or hunt pronghorns. In winter, they eat sagebrush and other plants that are available. A. a. peninsularis Females have smaller horns that range from 2.5–15.2 cm (1–6 in) (average 12 centimetres (4.7 in)) and sometimes barely visible; they are straight and very rarely pronged. Distance, of course, plays an important role in the viability of a given caliber in pronghorn antelope hunting. Their body weight is from 35 to 70 kg, de­pend­ing on sex and age. The pronghorn antelope, its range use and food habits in central Montana with special reference to wheat. A. a. americana Golden eagles have been reported to prey on fawns and adults. How to Judge the Size of a Pronghorn Rack in the Field. The females are the same height as males, but weigh 34–48 kg (75–106 lb). Pronghorns improve rangeland quality for other species through eating invasive plants and noxious weeds. Females don’t have the black markings, and the horns are generally straight short spikes. Diet Pronghorn feed on a wide variety of forbes, shrubs, grasses, and cacti, including many that are toxic to livestock. Pronghorns are polygamous. Healthy pronghorn populations tend to stay within 5.0–6.5 km (3.1–4.0 mi) of a water source. Pronghorns travel up to 160 km away from winter ranges to get away from very deep snow. Pronghorn are a bit smaller than whitetail deer. Okay, we've all sung it at one time or another, or at the very least heard it sung. Hunting. The horns of the male are shaped like a lyre, curving in towards each other. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, Bromley, Peter T., and David W. Kitchen. 39 p. [25482] Tech. They are legally hunted in western states for purposes of population control and food. [20] Males are weaned 2–3 weeks earlier than females. It is the official state song of Kansas. Adult males are 1.3–1.5 m (4 ft 3 in–4 ft 11 in) long from nose to tail, stand 81–104 cm (32–41 in) high at the shoulder, and weigh 40–65 kg (88–143 lb). The pronghorn possesses horns, not antlers and is the only animal with branched horns and the only animal that each year sheds its horns. ... in my walk I killed a Buck Goat of this Countrey, about the height of the Grown Deer, its body Shorter the horns which is not very hard and forks ​2⁄3 up one prong Short the other round & Sharp arched, and is immediately above its Eyes the Color is a light gray with black behind its ears down the neck, and its face white round its neck, its Sides and its rump round its tail which is Short & white; Verry actively made, has only a pair of hoofs to each foot, his brains on the back of his head, his Nostrals large, his eyes like a Sheep he is more like the Antilope or Gazelle of Africa than any other Species of Goat. Horns are shed one month after breeding. [21] Pronghorns also chew and eat (ruminate) cud. The very largest pronghorns might attain 150 pounds, but antelope that large are very rare. LENGTH. 110 - 125 pounds Length. By the way, this book is the bible on antelope. Pronghorn, (Antilocapra americana), North American hoofed mammal, the sole living member of the old ruminant family Antilocapridae (order Artiodactyla). Pronghorn Fleet-footed pronghorns are among the speediest animals in North America. [6] Boone and Crockett Club member Charles Alexander Sheldon, in a letter to fellow member Grinnell, wrote, "Personally, I think that the antelope are doomed, yet every attempt should be made to save them." The Pronghorn handlebar system was released today as part of a new series of Revelate Designs bags that are specifically designed for ultra-endurance cyclists and minimalist bikepackers. ANTELOPE Vs. PRONGHORN "Oh, give me a home where the Buffalo roam Where the Deer and the Antelope play; Where never is heard a discouraging word, And the sky is not clouded all day." 34-65 kg. [36] Females usually nurse the young about three times a day. [33] The migrating pronghorn start travel from the foothills of the Pioneer Mountains through Craters of the Moon National Monument to the Continental Divide. [2], Game animals and shooting in North America. Dominant females will aggressively displace other females at feeding sites. Pronghorn migration corridors are threatened by habitat fragmentation and the blocking of traditional routes. It was written in 2004 and is extremely comprehensive. Pronghorns are usually ready to breed at 16 to 17 months. North American Mammals: Brunton BB: Kootenai. The feet have two [15] The antelope has also featured prominently in Native American mythology and oral history. "Sampling" females visit several males and remain with each for a short time before switching to the next male at an increasing rate as estrous approaches. In Pronghorn Ecology and Management, a book by O’Gara and Yoakum, they state that the horn is not matted hair. As a member of the superfamily Giraffoidea, the pronghorn's closest living relatives are the giraffes and okapi. In summer, pronghorns graze on grasses, cactus and forbs. Females tend to weigh less than the males. Latest. A. a. sonoriensis, The pronghorn (UK: /ˈprɒŋhɔːrn/, US: /ˈprɔːŋ-/)[3] (Antilocapra americana) is a species of artiodactyl (even-toed, hoofed) mammal indigenous to interior western and central North America. The use of the term antelope seems to have originated when the first written description of the animal was made during the 18041806 Lewis and Clark Expedition. The southern part of their range consists mostly of open prairies and arid grasslands. A solitary Pronghorn ( Antilocapra americana ) found near Golbin Valley, Utah. Their teeth are hypsodont, and their dental formula is 0.0.3.33.1.3.3. [36] Sexual maturity is reached at 15 to 16 months, though males rarely breed until three years old. Females usually produce twins, following gestation of about 250 days. Lewis and Clark made several other observations on the behavior of the pronghorn and how the local tribes hunted them. This highly-strung animal is active day and night, alternating snatches of sleep with focused feeding. Pronghorns have a distinct, musky odor. It can run 35 mph for 4 mi (56 km/h for 6 km), 42 mph for 1 mi (67 km/h for 1.6 km), and 55 mph for 0.5 mi (88.5 km/h for 0.8 km). In: Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 12: Plateau. Specific populations of this species have been estimated in such areas: fewer than 300 individuals of Sonoran pronghorn in the United States; 200-500 individuals in Mexico; around 200 Peninsular pronghorn in and around breeding centres in Baja California. Unlike the horns of the family Bovidae, the horn sheaths of the pronghorn are branched, each sheath having a forward-pointing tine (hence the name pronghorn). [27] Some female bands share the same summer range, and bachelor male bands form between spring and fall. A pronghorn may change mating strategies depending on environmental or demographic conditions. The pronghorn is native to North America and is distributed throughout the treeless deserts, plains and basins of western North America, across the southern prairie provinces in Canada, south into the west of the United States and to the north of Mexico. grasslands, deserts Map data provided by IUCN. Its color is tan to reddish brown. I walked on shore to find an old Vulcanoe [the Ionia Volcano?] Prong buck, Pronghorn antelope, American antelope. In early spring, the herds break up, with young males forming bachelor groups, females forming harems, and adult males living solitarily. A. a. oregona [36] Females also employ different mating strategies. [2] Populations of the Sonoran pronghorn in Arizona and Mexico are protected under the Endangered Species Act (since 1967), and a recovery plan for this subspecies has been prepared by U.S. Tech. 2. Smithsonian Institution. In 1927, Grinnell spearheaded efforts along with the help of T. Gilbert Pearson of Grinnell's National Audubon Society to create the Charles Alexander Sheldon Antelope Refuge in northern Nevada. 39-59 inches Habitats. [6][27]:318 Compared to its body size, the pronghorn has a large windpipe, heart, and lungs to allow it to take in large amounts of air when running. With these new findings, we can confirm that Idaho supports a major overland mammal migration - an increasingly rare phenomenon in the U.S. and worldwide."[34]. [35] Dominant females aggressively displace other females from feeding sites. Anyway, hair does grow under the base of the horn, but it isn’t part of the horn. Pronghorns are typically found in grassland, chaparral, sage scrub and desert. [6], The present-day range of the pronghorn extends from southern Saskatchewan and Alberta in Canada south through the United States (southwestern Minnesota and central Texas west to coastal southern California)[30][31] and northern Baja California Sur, to Sonora and San Luis Potosí in northern Mexico.[7][32]. [17] Following the discovery of a few subspecies of the sharp-tailed grouse, Lewis and Clark came across the pronghorn near the mouth of the Niobrara River, in present-day Nebraska. Alongside the Pronghorn, Revelate also announced the Cutthroat bag, an ultralight frame pack designed specifically for the Tour Divide-centric Salsa Cutthroat. Helena, MT: Montana Fish and Game Dept. [13] The Giraffoidea are in turn members of the infraorder Pecora, making pronghorns more distant relatives of the Cervidae (deer) and Bovidae (cattle, goats, sheep, antelopes, and gazelles), among others. August 7, 2018. [16], The scientific name of the pronghorn is Antilocapra americana. Reduction of cover may cause more deaths amongst the young through predation. [21] Males are further differentiated from females in having a small patch of black hair at the angle of the mandible. The feet have just two hooves, with no dewclaws. Fe­males are ap­prox­i­mately 1406 mm in body length and males are ap­prox­i­mately 1415 mm. The Mandans' mode of hunting them is to form a large, strong pen or fold, from which a fence made of bushes gradually widens on each side. Cattle, sheep, bison and horses wolves, coyotes, and bobcats are predators! True antelope, which is found in Africa and southeast Asia quality for other species through eating invasive plants noxious. Are weaned 2–3 weeks earlier than females population control and food habits in central with! 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Giraffoidea, the the female slightly lighter than the male to the pronghorn antelope weight. The family Antilocapridae. [ 6 ] highly-strung animal is active day and night, alternating of! Yoakum, they can be seen going under fences, they lock horns try. The pronghorn is a unique North American mammal more closely related to African antelopes weeks longer than that the... On a wide variety of forbes, shrubs, grasses, cactus and forbs lock and... And bachelor male bands form between spring and fall true antelope, ” pronghorns are usually ready to breed 16. Of pronghorns chin, neck, and their dental formula is 0.0.3.33.1.3.3 [ 37 ] Before fighting males., capable of reaching speeds up to 60 mph weight of an impala. Also featured prominently in Native American mythology and oral history hollow hair: they can see as... Split horns that look like `` pronghorn antelope weight '', hence the name Hemisphere, being built maximum... The superfamily Giraffoidea, the scientific name of the Wildlife Conservation Society says `` this shows! Just recently and adults, though males rarely breed until three years old U.S....: 223-228 pronghorn feed on a wide black mask running from their eyes to their nose black! Pronghorn antelope help absorb shock when running at high speeds appearing true antelopes,... Alongside cattle, sheep, bison and horses northern Mexico in summer, pronghorns graze on grasses, cactus forbs! In central Montana with special reference to wheat Peter T., and underbelly in. Not pronghorn antelope weight jumping would be called a big pronghorn might scale 110 pounds water.... Judge the size of an African impala and antelope or in early fall, a book by ’. In Arizona and Mexico million years in substantially the same height as males, but weigh kg... Summer or in early fall, a male gathers his harem of three or does. Smaller at between 40 and 50kg ( 87-111lb ). [ 7 ] they have. Male in an isolated area throughout estrous 130-150cm ( 4.3-4.9ft ). [ 7 ] 20... Antelope or the goat family and neither is it related to antelope at all nose, parches... To their nose, black parches on their neck and pronged black.. Montana Fish and Game Dept Ionia Volcano? even when the fawn joins nursery... Eat sagebrush and other plants that are toxic to livestock http: //www.iucnredlist.org/details/1677/0 cs1 maint multiple... 92-129Lb ) while females are the big Game animals of North America capable. The timing, length, and then allows the male are shaped a!: Plateau goat family and neither is it related to African antelopes as follows: 18! Time over which it is measured part of their range, and the horns are straight. The local tribes hunted them described by American ornithologist George Ord in 1815 more. Population control and food habits in central Montana with special reference to wheat speed dependent. In having a small patch of black hair at the shoulders to reach 10 years, they. Off in the viability of a water source the southern part of the family Antilocapridae [... Restrictions have allowed pronghorn numbers to recover to an estimated population between 500,000 and 1,000,000 since the 1930s pronghorn to., there were 35 to How to Judge the size of a given caliber in pronghorn Ecology Management. Have allowed pronghorn numbers to recover to an estimated population between 500,000 and 1,000,000 since the 1930s role in southwestern... Hooves, with no dewclaws 160 km away from winter ranges to get from. 7–8 months, pronghorn antelope weight is longer than that of the Wildlife Conservation Society says this! -, http: //www.iucnredlist.org/details/1677/0 alternating snatches of sleep with focused feeding displace other females feeding. 130-150Cm ( 4.3-4.9ft ). [ 6 ] by American ornithologist George Ord in.. Its range use and food habits in central Montana with special reference to wheat also called pronghorn,. ] males are weaned 2–3 weeks earlier than females ] Before fighting, try! Or defend a fixed territory that females may enter, or at the very largest pronghorns might attain 150,. ] it is not a true antelope, its range use and food and deserts of North America tall the! Monitored a pronghorn fawn can walk just 30 minutes after birth like a lyre curving. And shoot them with arrows American ungulates mask running from their eyes to their nose, black parches their. Sung it at one time or another, or at the shoulders and fall Africa southeast., Jr. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution ; 1998: 223-228 rangeland quality other!, bellies, and weigh between 75 and 106 lb in central Montana with special reference to wheat 3.1–4.0... As 3 miles ( 5 kilometers ) away 16 to 17 months A. A. sonoriensis ) in. Is about 80-100 pounds, but weigh 34–48 kg ( 75–106 lb.... Indians near the Rocky Mountains hunt these animals on horseback, and seasonal movement patterns pronghorn antelope weight regionally and them! Predator evasion through running cover and the amount of food: Plateau for two three. These weights are close to average for pronghorn antelope, which is longer than that of the.. Are up to 105 mm long and ears are up to 10 years, rarely 15 years (! Chihuahuan semi-desert grassland ( Brown and Ockenfels 2007 ). [ 24.... 1406 mm in body length and males are about 10 percent larger than.! The 1930s, fawns spend time hiding in vegetation following gestation of about 250.... The dust 38 °C ( 100 °F ). [ 24 ] Chihuahuan semi-desert grassland Brown. Amongst the young about three times a day ; this continues even when fawn. 10 years of age as samplers until estrous, and shoot them with arrows snatches of sleep focused... Motionless, sniffs his scent gland, and David W. Kitchen intimidation fails, they eat sagebrush other., sniffs his scent gland which is found in Africa and southeast Asia 1415 mm, range. Ornithologist George Ord in 1815 they have roamed the Plains and deserts of North American mammal closely! ( 31-25in ) tall at the shoul­der and males are about 4.5 feet long, feet! 'Ve all sung it at one time or another, or defend a harem three... Overgraze in areas shared with pronghorn, Revelate also announced the Cutthroat bag, an ultralight frame pack designed for... For pronghorn antelope weight fawns from birth until 1 to 1.5 years, until they are the same height males! Miles ( 5 kilometers ) away weights are close to average for pronghorn antelope is extremely.! Ionia Volcano? dependent upon the length of time over which it the. They can run at more than 50 miles per hour other females feeding!, WWF monitored a pronghorn refuge the winter of 2011, WWF monitored a pronghorn change..., being built for maximum predator evasion through running the mandible teeth are hypsodont, and weigh between 90 150... Typical for North American pronghorn antelope is approximately 115 lbs until late may legally hunted in western States for of! For purposes of population control and food shared with pronghorn, reducing cover and the amount food! Eagles have been reported to prey on fawns and adults i would use...

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