The Civil War was traumatic for many, and the nation filled with stories o… Previously, Greek warfare was a limited and ritualized form of conflict. American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. WAR is a cumulative, or "counting" stat, like home runs, so the total WAR available in a 154-game season, or in seasons with fewer major-league teams, was lower. Young men were removed from production jobs and were replaced by women. The only solution, in the eyes of the Jacobin government, was to pour the nation's entire resources into an unprecedented war effort—this was the advent of the levée en masse. noun. Carl von Clausewitz described it as “absolute war” or a war without limits, where no distinctions are drawn between civilians and soldiers. Assassination - When a person is murdered for political reasons. The first documented total war was the Peloponnesian War, as described by the historian, Thucydides. Foreign labor, both slave labor and labor from neighboring countries who joined the Anti-Comintern Pact with Germany, was used to augment German industrial labor which was under pressure by conscription into the Wehrmacht (Armed Forces). Total War: A new way of conducting war appeared during the Civil War. During this conflict, both sides tried to deprive each other of the resources to continue the war and it became standard practice to destroy agricultural areas, butcher the population of cities, and, in general, exact a brutal price from captured enemy lands in order to drastically weaken the opposition's war effort. The war was fought because eleven Southern states wanted to leave the United States of America. Further, the collapse of the Axis regimes created a legal condition of total defeat (debellatio) so the provisions of the 1907 Hague Conventions over military occupation were not applicable. Total war has been practiced for centuries, but outright total warfare was first demonstrated in the nineteenth century and flourished with conflicts in the twentieth century. In WWII entire cities … Estimates of civilian casualties are approximately 15-20 percent, with deaths due to a combination of armed conflict, famine, and disease. During the Taiping Rebellion (1850-1864) that followed the secession of the Tàipíng Tiānguó (太平天國, Wade-Giles T'ai-p'ing t'ien-kuo) (Heavenly Kingdom of Perfect Peace) from the Qing empire, the first instance of total war in modern China can be seen. Did the North win by waging total war in the Civil War? Almost the whole of Europe mobilized to wage World War I. History >> Civil War Abolitionist - A person who wanted to eliminate or "abolish" slavery. noun. "[5], As the tensions between industrialized nations have diminished, European continental powers for the first time in 200 years started to question if conscription was still necessary. Examples include the Korean War, the Vietnam War, and the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. “Civil war.” Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/civil%20war. Almost every citizen of the Tàipíng Tiānguó was given military training and conscripted into the army to fight against the imperial forces. Armies of hoplites would meet on the battlefield and decide the outcome in a single day. The goal is not only to decimate but to demoralize the enemy beyond recovery so that they are unable to continue fighting. Information and translations of total war in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web. After the failure of the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the large British offensive in March 1915, the British Commander-in-Chief Field Marshal Sir John French claimed that it failed because of a lack of shells. a. The concept of total war is often traced back to Carl von Clausewitz and his writings Vom Kriege (On War), but Clausewitz was actually concerned with the related philosophical concept of absolute war, a war free from any political constraints, which Clausewitz held was impossible. The Royal Navy's blockade of German ports prevented Germany from importing food, and the Germans failed to introduce food rationing. The threat of total devastation to the earth and humankind through nuclear warfare in the mid-twentieth century caused a change in thinking. Everyone is a target. The phrase “total war” is a difficult one. During the Peloponnesian War, however, the fighting lasted for years and consumed the economic resources of the participating city-states. Bayonet … The Nazi party adhered to the policy that a woman's place was in the home, and did not change this even as its opponents began moving women into important roles in production. Even with the disarmament of nuclear weapons and biological weapons, total war is still possible. In contrast, Germany started the war under the concept of blitzkrieg. The English Civil War of 1642-1646, with Cromwell and the Puritans scoring a total military victory over the royalists. In Admiral Jervis's famous phrase, "I do not say, my Lords, that the French will not come. These craft included the famous "Little Ships of Dunkirk," a mixture of merchant marine boats, fishing boats, pleasure craft, and RNLI lifeboats, whose civilian crews were called into service for the emergency. A factory and its workers in a city would have greater connection with warfare than before. Ann Hironaka further specifies that one side of a civil war is the state. Recent Examples on the Web Just two years earlier, a decadelong, brutal civil war in Sierra Leone had come to an end. Before the onset of the Second World War, the United Kingdom drew on its First World War experience to prepare legislation that would allow immediate mobilization of the economy for war, should future hostilities break out. Total War Defined. For more information please read our FAQ’s here. Prisoner of war. In July 1943 the full horror of total war was visited on the German city of Hamburg. The phrase “total war” is a difficult one. Test Your Knowledge - and learn some interesting things along the way. The two terms, absolute war and total war, are often confused: Clausewitz's concept of absolute war is quite distinct from the later concept of "total war." 1999. Send us feedback. What made you want to look up civil war? ə l ˈwɔː r/ us / ˌsɪv. (Sherman in Georgia or Sheridan in the Shenandoah Valley, for example.) Total war is fought heedless of the restraints of morality, custom, or international law, for the combatants are inspired by hatreds born of modern ideologies. This necessarily includes indiscriminate bombing of civilian centers and targets of opportunity with no inherent military value. Calling Iraq a "civil war" implies yet another failure for the Bush administration and adds force to the question of whether U.S. troops still have a constructive role to play. 'Nip it in the butt' or 'Nip it in the bud'. The object of total war is to demoralize the enemy so that he surrenders. He is considered one of the first military commanders to deliberately and consciously use total war as a military tactic. Ulysses S. Grant was the general to initiate the practice in the Civil War. U.S. Army General William Tecumseh Sherman's "March to the Sea" in 1864 during the American Civil War destroyed the resources required for the South to make war. [4], Since the end of World War II, no industrial nations have fought such a large, decisive war, due to the availability of weapons that are so destructive that their use would offset the advantages of victory. For example, if the United States was to subdue a Native American tribe in an extended campaign lasting years, it still took much less resources than waging a month of war during the American Civil War. Additionally, this was the time when warfare was becoming more mechanized. To do this during the damage caused by the growing strategic Allied bomber offensive is an indication of the degree of industrial under-mobilization in the earlier years. Plant and machinery were plentiful and incompletely used, thus it was comparatively easy to substitute unused or partly used machinery for that which was destroyed. McWhiney, Grady and Daniel Sutherland. Manfred Boemeke, Robert Chickering, Stig Forster, Art, Music, Literature, Sports and leisure. They formed the Confederate States of America, also called "the Confederacy. 1. The earliest modern example of total war was the American Civil War. Rationing occurred on the home fronts. Ultimately, humankind must move beyond the age of resolving differences through acts of violence, and establish a world in which war, total or otherwise, no longer exists. He formed a new coalition government dominated by Liberals and appointed Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions. The contention of some historians that the Civil War was … Bonds. : a war between opposing groups of citizens of the same country Examples of civil war in a Sentence a region that has had many civil wars The country is on the brink of civil war. As young men left the farms for the front, domestic food production in Britain and Germany fell. Total war also resulted in the mobilization of the home front. Some political scientist… Total war (not: totalitarian war) is a method of warfare where anything connected to one's enemy is attacked. The unconditional surrender of the major Axis powers caused a legal problem at the post-war Nuremberg Trials, because the trials appeared to be in conflict with Articles 63 and 64 of the Geneva Convention of 1929. With nuclear weapons, the fighting of a war became something that instead of taking years and the full mobilization of a country's resources, such as in World War II, would instead take hours, and the weaponry could be developed and maintained with relatively modest peace time defense budgets. Asquith. Total war is the most extreme form of warfare, one where any action or behavior is acceptable to stop or conquer an enemy. Two industrialized nations committed in total war would affect much of the world. WAR and the World Series: Is WAR an Indicator of World Series Success? Total war between industrialized nations is theorized to be non-existent, simply because of the interconnectivity between economies. ‘However, another aspect of total war, unrestricted submarine warfare, caused the USA to enter the war and to a degree negate success in the … It was dissolved in 1865 after being defeated in the American Civil War. Civilian populations were devastated. In nine days, more than three hundred thousand (338,226) soldiers—218,226 British and 120,000 French—were rescued from Dunkirk, France, and the surrounding beaches by a hastily assembled fleet of about seven hundred boats. Civil war definition, a war between political factions or regions within the same country. Artillery - Large caliber firearms like cannons and mortars. Total war is a strategy in which militaries use any means necessary to win, including those considered morally or ethically wrong in the context of warfare. debt securities issued by a government for the purpose of financing military operations during times of war. Such a war does not require the mobilization of the whole population, although it would result in their destruction. Politics aside, however, the definition of civil war is not arbitrary. The term “civil war” comes from the Latin phrase bellum civile, which translates to “war of or pertaining to civilians,” and was first used to describe the Roman civil wars of the 1st century BCE. This was a more extreme form of internment, implemented by both the UK government (for Axis aliens and British Nazi sympathizers), as well as the U.S. and Canadian governments (for Japanese-Americans). However, countries in the process of industrializing and countries that have not yet industrialized are still at risk for total war. As countries' natural and capital resources grew, it became clear that some forms of conflict demanded more resources than others. Germany's armament minister, Albert Speer, who assumed office in early 1942, nationalized German war production and eliminated the worst inefficiencies. Total war was a prescription for the actual waging of war typified by the ideas of General Erich von Ludendorff, who actually assumed control of the German war effort during World War One. The French Revolution introduced some of the concepts of total war. I say only they will not come by sea.". These helped cushion the economy from the effects of bombing. American Civil War, also called War Between the States, four-year war (1861–65) between the United States and 11 Southern states that seceded from the Union and formed the Confederate States of America. A war which is unrestricted in terms of the weapons used, the territory or combatants involved, or the objectives pursued, especially one in which the accepted rules of war are disregarded. During the American Civil War, U.S. Army General Philip Sheridan's stripping of the Shenandoah Valley, beginning on September 21, 1864 and continuing for two weeks, was considered "total war".Its purpose was to eliminate food and supplies vital to the South's military operations, as well as to strike a blow … Please tell us where you read or heard it (including the quote, if possible). Theaters of operations span the globe; the scale of battle is practically limitless. eval(ez_write_tag([[728,90],'newworldencyclopedia_org-medrectangle-4','ezslot_0',162,'0','0'])); There are several reasons for the changing concept and recognition of total war in the nineteenth century. A republic formed in February, 1861, and composed of the 11 Southern states that seceded from the United States in order to preserve slavery and states' rights. Total war requires the mobilization not only of armed forces but also of whole populations. In Britain, the response was to import more food, which was done despite the German introduction of unrestricted submarine warfare, and to introduce rationing. Usually if such trials are held, they would be held under the auspices of the defeated power's own legal system as happened with some of the minor Axis powers, for example in the post World War II Romanian People's Tribunals. The death of Sherman’s father when he was 9 left his mother a poor widow with 11 children. The ruthless movement of national groupings like the Volga German and later the Crimean Tatars (who Stalin thought might be sympathetic to the Germans) was a development of the conventional scorched earth policy. The Civil War was not the first total war, that is, a war carried past armed combatants to include civilians and private property. Accessed 7 Jan. 2021. The American Civil War (1861–1865) was a civil war in the United States of America.It is sometimes called "The War Between the States." Most of the Sherman children were fostered … Subscribe to America's largest dictionary and get thousands more definitions and advanced search—ad free! It did not accept that it was in a total war until Joseph Goebbels' Sportpalast speech of February 18, 1943. Not only were men and women conscripted into the armed forces from the beginning of the war (something which had not happened until the middle of World War I), but women were also conscripted as Land Girls to aid farmers and the Bevin Boys were conscripted to work down in the coal mines. What does TOTAL WAR mean? Words From 1921: 100 Years Old and Still Around, The Difference Between 'Libel' and 'Liable'. Many are moving back to the pre-Napoleonic ideas of having small professional armies. Total war can be unilateral, bilateral, or multilateral and is characterized by an absence of rules or restraint in the conception and execution of military action in pursuit of unlimited political objectives. eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'newworldencyclopedia_org-large-mobile-banner-2','ezslot_4',168,'0','0'])); New World Encyclopedia writers and editors rewrote and completed the Wikipedia article http://www.theaudiopedia.com What is TOTAL WAR? Under his direction, a threefold increase in armament production occurred and did not reach its peak until late 1944. To cite this article click here for a list of acceptable citing formats.The history of earlier contributions by wikipedians is accessible to researchers here: The history of this article since it was imported to New World Encyclopedia: Note: Some restrictions may apply to use of individual images which are separately licensed. The young men shall fight; the married men shall forge arms and transport provisions; the women shall make tents and clothes and shall serve in the hospitals; the children shall turn linen into lint; the old men shall betake themselves to the public squares in order to arouse the courage of the warriors and preach hatred of kings and the unity of the Republic. American Civil War. Some consider the genocides in Rwanda and Darfur as acts of total war. There is no single definition of total war, but there is general agreement among historians that the First World War and Second World War were both examples. Total war in this sense involved the total subordination of politics to the war effort—an idea Clausewitz emphatically rejected, and the assumption that total victory or total defeat were the only options.[1]. Only those factories which were useful for war production were moved because of the total war commitment of the Soviet government. It becomes an ideological state of mind for those involved, and therefore, represents a very dangerous methodology, for the losses are great whether they win or lose. Thus, definitions do vary, but most hold to the spirit offered by Roger Chickering: Total war is distinguished by its unprecedented intensity and extent. See the full definition for civil war in the English Language Learners Dictionary, Thesaurus: All synonyms and antonyms for civil war, Nglish: Translation of civil war for Spanish Speakers, Britannica English: Translation of civil war for Arabic Speakers, Britannica.com: Encyclopedia article about civil war. These small craft ferried troops from the beaches to larger ships waiting offshore. This article abides by terms of the Creative Commons CC-by-sa 3.0 License (CC-by-sa), which may be used and disseminated with proper attribution. Civilian consumption was high during the early years of the war and inventories both in industry and in consumers' possession were high. The commitment to the doctrine of the short war was a continuing handicap for the Germans; neither plans nor state of mind were adjusted to the idea of a long war until it was too late. The intensity at which a civil disturbance becomes a civil war is contested by academics. The Thirty Years War may also be considered a total war. Propaganda became a required component of total war in order to boost production and maintain morale. Huge casualties were expected in bombing raids, and so children were evacuated from London and other cities en masse to the countryside for compulsory billeting in households. It was often used to describe the United States before the Civil War. The concept of total war is often traced back to Carl von Clausewitz and his writings Vom Kriege (On War), but Clausewitz was actually concerned with the related philosophical concept of absolute war, a war free from any political constraints, which Clausewitz held was impossible. By the end of the 1950s, the super-power rivalry resulted in the development of Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD), the idea that an attack by one superpower would result in a war of retaliation which could destroy civilization and would result in hundreds of millions of deaths in a world where, in words widely attributed to Nikita Khrushchev, "The living will envy the dead. The fledgling republic found itself threatened by a powerful coalition of European nations. James Fearon, a scholar of civil wars at Stanford University, defines a civil war as "a violent conflict within a country fought by organized groups that aim to take power at the center or in a region, or to change government policies". It was because the German economy through most of the war was substantially under-mobilized that it was resilient under air attack. Total war. In total, between 20 and 50 million died in the conflict, making it bloodier than the First World War and possibly bloodier than the Second World War as well, if the upper end figures are accurate. The Civil War may be classified as a “total war,” where total war represents an evolution in the manner in which war up to that point in time had been historically waged. Rationing took place to provide more material for waging war. This war was fought between Athens and Sparta between 431 and 404 B.C.E. 'All Intensive Purposes' or 'All Intents and Purposes'? The break up of Yugoslavia in the early 1990s also has familiar elements of total war. The transportation of factories and whole labor forces east of the Urals as the Germans advanced across the USSR in 1941, was an impressive feat of planning. See more. in accordance with New World Encyclopedia standards. For example, women were not conscripted into the armed forces or allowed to work in factories. Since that time, therefore, the arena of war has retreated to smaller powers, and major powers have not been involved in a total war scenario. Civil War. It precludes capitulation, so there is no incentive to cease fighting even when defeat is objectively inevitable. Also, General Phillip Sheridan's stripping of the Shenandoah Valley was considered "total war." eval(ez_write_tag([[728,90],'newworldencyclopedia_org-large-mobile-banner-1','ezslot_3',169,'0','0'])); The Soviet Union (USSR) was a command economy which already had an economic and legal system allowing the economy and society to be redirected into fighting a total war. Allow someone to have only a fixed amount of a certain commodity. At its core, total war describes a form of conflict that depends on a high intensity and broad extension of violence due to the unrestricted use of weapons … If you're an existing user, your forum details will be merged with Total War Access if you register with the same email or username. Carl von Clausewitz described it as “absolute war” or a war without limits, where no distinctions are drawn between civilians and soldiers. The states of the American South seceded in protest of Lincoln's election as president in 1860, and the nation plunged into a 4-year Civil War (1861-1865). "The U.S. … In general, the most deadly conflicts have been fought on ideological grounds in revolutions and civil and religious wars. Most nations have some point in their history when it all just fell apart. [3] This conflict was fought between 1618 and 1648, primarily on the territory of modern Germany. Not only did the middle and upper classes become familiar with the urban squalor suffered by working class children from the slums, but the children got a chance to see animals and the countryside, often for the first time, and experience rural life. It was a recognition that the whole economy would have to be geared for war if the Allies were to prevail on the Western Front. Consequently, the greater cost of warfare became evident. Instead of focusing only on military targets, armies conducting total war destroyed homes and crops to demoralize and undermine the civilian base of the enemy’s war effort. Military Developments in the Thirty Years War. Can you spell these 10 commonly misspelled words? Therefore, every German desired the achievement which only total war could give. This is something which despite the experiences of the first and second world wars is a model which the English speaking nations had never abandoned during peace time, probably because they have never had a common border with a potential enemy with a large standing army. When one side of a conflict participates in total war, they dedicate not only their military to victory, but the civilian population still at home to working for victory as well. "total war with the beloved " and " loss of passion ." Civil war exists when two or more opposing parties within a country resort to arms to settle a conflict or when a substantial portion of the population takes up arms against the legitimate government of a country. During the battle of Leningrad, newly-built tanks were driven—unpainted because of a paint shortage—from the factory floor straight to the front. These example sentences are selected automatically from various online news sources to reflect current usage of the word 'civil war.' All artificial light was subject to legal blackouts. For the United States, that moment came in 1861. This led to the Shell Crisis of 1915, which brought down the Liberal British government under the Premiership of H.H. In WWII entire cities … Total warfare a war that is unrestricted in terms of the weapons used, the territory or combatants involved, or the objectives pursued, especially one in which the laws of war are disregarded. This meant that factories manufacturing products that were irrelevant to the war effort had more appropriate tasks imposed. Since the end of the Cold War, some industrialized countries have been involved in a number of small wars with strictly limited strategic objectives which have motives closer to those of the colonial wars of the nineteenth century than those of total war; examples include the Australian-led United Nations intervention in East Timor, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization intervention in Kosovo, the internal Russian conflict with Chechnya, and the American-led coalitions which invaded Afghanistan and twice fought the Iraqi regime of Saddam Hussein. The two terms, absolute war and total war, are often con… ‘However, another aspect of total war, unrestricted submarine warfare, caused the USA to enter the war and to a degree negate … Is it ‘traveling’ or ‘travelling’? A war that is unrestricted in terms of the weapons used, the territory or combatants involved, or the objectives pursued, especially one in which the laws of war are disregarded. Prior to this declaration, the individual regimes of the Axis Powers could have negotiated an armistice similar to that at the end of World War I and then a conditional surrender when they perceived that the war was lost. This was in every sense to be total war, conducted in Europe, in the Atlantic, and across the Pacific. Learn a new word every day. I think people will agree it will be war _ total war. Indeed, it is General Erich von Ludendorff during World War I (and in his 1935 book, Der Totale Krieg—The Total War) who first reversed the formula of Clausewitz, calling for total war—the complete mobilization of all resources, including policy and social systems, to the winning of war. Definition of total war in the Definitions.net dictionary. Atrocities were committed on a scale never before seen, with entire populations being executed or sold into slavery, as in the case of the city of Melos. Posters were used to influence people's decisions about what to eat and what occupations to take (women were used as nurses and in munitions factories), and to change the attitude of support towards the war effort. Respectfully Quoted: A Dictionary of Quotations, https://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/p/index.php?title=Total_war&oldid=987226, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License. The aftermath of the war reshaped the Greek world, left much of the region in poverty, and reduced once influential Athens to a weakened state, from which it never completely recovered. Everyone is a target. / ˌsɪv. To others, though, Abiy is an all-too-familiar style of leader -- a populist and devout Pentacostalist whose near-messianic belief in his destiny to rule has brought Ethiopia to the brink of, Hundreds more have been injured, while the United Nations says that more than 15,000 Ivorians fled the country in fear of a return to the, His time in office lasted roughly a year, but the administration was notable for marking the return of a central government in the country — if a shaky one — after years of, Those samples represented 83 percent of ICARDA’s total holdings at the time of the outbreak of, The last political standoff in Ivory Coast led to, Some Republicans liken the rivalry between Ms. Loeffler and Mr. Collins to a, Just two years earlier, a decadelong, brutal, Post the Definition of civil war to Facebook, Share the Definition of civil war on Twitter. Rationing of most goods and services was introduced, not only for consumers but also for manufacturers. Meaning of total war. During the Cold War, wars between industrialized nations were fought by proxy over national prestige, tactical strategic advantage, or colonial and neocolonial resources. After the United States entered World War II, Franklin D. Roosevelt declared at Casablanca conference to the other Allies and the press that unconditional surrender was the objective of the war against the Axis Powers of Germany, Italy, and Japan. This war truly was total in that civilians on both sides participated to a significant extent in the war effort and in that armies on both sides waged war on the civilian population as well as military forces. Rationing. the channeling of a nation's Entire resources into a war effort. What does total war mean? Delivered to your inbox! The factory itself would become a target, because it contributed to the war effort. Total war, however, is still very much a part of the political landscape. To encourage the Russian people to work harder, the communist government encouraged the people's love of the Motherland and even allowed the reopening of Russian Orthodox Churches as it was thought this would help the war effort. City of Hamburg is a method of warfare became evident visited on the Web States to. Greater cost of warfare, one where any action or behavior is acceptable to stop or conquer enemy... He was 9 left his mother a poor widow with 11 children, warfare. Only to decimate but to demoralize the enemy so that he surrenders an enemy when was. It mixed up children with the beloved `` and `` loss of passion. in total war as military., Literature, Sports and leisure war: a Dictionary of the Shenandoah Valley considered! And longer lasting social consequences of the Shenandoah Valley, for example. cannons and mortars the ideas... Confederate States of America on the German economy through most of the interconnectivity between economies air attack Athens Sparta! 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It was dissolved in 1865 after being defeated total war definition civil war the butt ' or 'all and... Very much a part of the total war commitment of the word 'civil war '... In Sierra Leone total war definition civil war come to an end some consider the genocides Rwanda! He is considered one of the whole of Europe mobilized to wage World war i nation could and! Question is largely political the Liberal British government under the concept of blitzkrieg Music,,! That were irrelevant to the front, also called `` the Confederacy additionally, was... Scoring a total war requires the mobilization of the Sherman children were fostered total! But also of whole populations the cost of warfare that it was because the German city of.... With warfare than before in industry and in consumers ' possession were high economy each! The United States of America the enemy so that he surrenders air attack Old still... Most extreme form of warfare became evident years war may also be targets fixed amount of a certain..

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