The participants especially liked that many courses were free-of-charge or had very low participation fees (S01, S06, S08, S13, S16, S18, S19, and S20). In 1754, the St Andrews Society of Golfers was formed. We conducted an online survey among university students from all over Germany from October 31, 2014, to January 15, 2015. Hits could be made with sword-point only, while the side of the blade was used for defense. The first 18-hole course (now standard) was constructed in 1764. By the late 1700s, German Friedrich Ludwig Jahn (the "father of modern gymnastics”) had introduced the sidebar, the horizontal bar, the parallel bars, the balance beam, and jumping events. Methods. Nonetheless, there are some limitations that should be considered while interpreting our results. The event has been held annually since 1856. As the immense popularity of collegiate basketball and football grew, interest in rowing waned. The qualitative study part was also used to test the content validity—and therewith the completeness—of the item battery used in the quantitative part. Whilst Physical Education is a part of the process of education that aims to improve human development and performance through physical activity and Sport is about a range of structured physical activities, the two shared close relationship. But Sweden wasn't the only place where fisticuffs were illegal. As anyone writing a compendium on the history of sports can tell you, there's a staggering amount of information to sift through and only so much time. Therefore, there could be participation bias. The authors acknowledge financial support by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft within the funding program Open Access Publishing, by the Baden-Württemberg Ministry of Science, Research and the Arts, and by Ruprecht-Karls-University Heidelberg. The length and detail of your background also depend on the degree to which you need to demonstrate your understanding of the topic. When the modern Olympic Games were launched in Athens, Greece, on April 5, 1896, swimming races were among the original events. Points were earned by landing the ball in a peach basket. This study investigates reasons for sport engagement among students and addresses the utilization of university sports programs (USP) by employing a mixed-methods approach. 47.6% of students participated in USP. The Italian fencing style emphasized speed and dexterity rather than force and was soon adopted throughout Europe. Paume evolved into jeu de paume ("game of the palm") in which racquets were used. Background of the study is used to prove that a thesis question is relevant and also to develop the thesis. The first shoes specifically designed for the game, Converse All Stars, were introduced in 1917 and were soon made famous by legendary player Chuck Taylor who became an early brand ambassador in the 1920s. In summary, we found that attitude and subjective norm were associated with sports participation at follow-up. All participants provided informed consent before taking part in the study. In the 16th century, King Charles I popularized the golf in England and Mary Queen of Scots, who was French, introduced the game to her homeland. Naval Academy went on to beat the British team, recapturing the gold medal. Basketball was not always played on the full-sized basketball court you see today, nor were the players jumping incredible heights to perform slam dunks. The first reference to golf at Scotland's most famous golf course, St Andrews, was in 1552. After investing with a tree marking gun manufacturer called Nelson, the group began promoting and selling the guns for use in the new recreational sport. To our knowledge, this study is among the first to combine quantitative and qualitative methods to analyze university students’ motivation for sports engagement. By 1500, racquets constructed of wooden frames and gut strings were in play, as were balls made of cork and leather. You can also find a bunch of other research paper topics within various disciplines and areas of studies. She is known for her independent films and documentaries, including one about Alexander Graham Bell. This may contain the general description, and may include the broader description of the topic. The variety of courses available was also seen as an advantage (S10, S11, S14, and S17): “The program offers every kind of activity imaginable, from climbing to kayaking and even field trips” (S14). Interviews were audiotaped (Olympus DS-2500) and transcribed verbatim. The average duration of the interviews was 41:45 minutes (range = 28–59 minutes). Consequently, we bridged existing knowledge gaps by using data from a mixed-methods study conducted among university students. The qualitative component identified additional reasons for sport activity that were not addressed by the item battery, which provides critical implications for developing item batteries for future research. The NuPhA-Study consists of a quantitative online survey (n=689) followed by qualitative interviews (n=20). Another aspect that was mentioned repeatedly was sports’ ability to compensate for the time spent sitting down while studying (S07, S08, and S19). An aspect that was often criticized by students in our qualitative interviews was overcrowded courses. Social class and physical education in primary schools: a comparative study of physical education in two urban primary schools. Quantitative results were further explored using qualitative data to check for completeness of the predefined items (content validity) and to identify opportunities to improve participating in USP. The English won gold medals in 1908 and 1912, after which the United States ditched professional rowers, and instead, tapped the best college team to compete at the 1920 Games. The game of Golf is descended from a game that originated in the Kingdom of Fife on the eastern coast of Scotland in during the 15th century. [15], we excluded the items on barriers and added items on motivation from other validated instruments [5–8, 10–12] to cover an even broader range of items. In addition, obesity resulting from a lack of physical activity in this age group can have adverse health consequences later in life [3]. Published: 08 July, 2011 . Sport competence, age, peer acceptance, and team versus individual sport were not analyzed as mediators in the current study, and should be addressed in future studies for more direct comparisons. Here are the specific areas of study, with examples of courses around the world. Physical activity among students is essential for complimenting sedentary behavior and for individuals’ future health. Not all students were taking advantage of the university sports program—some praised the variety of available courses, but still did not attend any of them (S01, S13, S09, and S20). I don’t think there’s anything that should be changed” (S06). Students (n=689, aged 16–29 years, Table 1) from all over Germany participated in the study (69.5% women; mean age = 22.7 years). Nearly half of the students participated in university sports, which underlines their importance. Rowing became an Olympic sport in 1900. 2018, Article ID 9524861, 7 pages, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/9524861, 1Mannheim Institute of Public Health, Social and Preventive Medicine, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Ludolf-Krehl-Straße 7-11, 68167 Mannheim, Germany, 2Faculty of Rehabilitation Sciences, Technical University Dortmund, Emil-Figge-Straße 50, 44227 Dortmund, Germany. A practice sword, known as the foil, was introduced for training. The print, radio, television, internet, and cinema media have contributed to the explosive popularity of both professional and collegiate sports. The items are based on an established battery by Brown et al. With the exception of tumbling, which remained a fairly popular form of entertainment, as the Roman Empire declined, the interest in gymnastics, along with several other sports favored by gladiators and soldiers dwindled as well. A barrier to participation. We chose this design to gather quantitative information on students’ motivations for sport activity and their utilization of the university sports program as a first step. (the ISF Sports Club). Body weight seems to be important to both young men and women. In particular, this rise has also led to the rise of online gaming. However, this bias was not a problem in our pretests. With the first Olympic Games in 776 BC—which included events such as foot and chariot races, wrestling, jumping, and discus and javelin throwing—the Ancient Greeks introduced formal sports to the world. When boxing made its Olympic debut at the 1904 Games in St. Louis, the USA was the only country entered, and as a result, took home all the medals. Since our overall aim was to explore motivation and barriers for physical activity, this shortcoming played a trivial role. The earliest evidence of boxing can be traced back to Egypt circa 3000 BC. Hacky sack (a.k.a. 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