Int. Soothes Muscles. doi: 10.1093/jxb/ers026, Suwarno, W. B., Pixley, K. V., Palacios-Rojas, N., Kaeppler, S. M., Babu, R. (2015). Watermelon is an unusual fruit source of the carotenoid lycopene and a rich source of phenolic antioxidants. 54, 2593–2597. Although lycopene is chemically a carotene, it has no vitamin A activity.. BMC Genomics 14 (1), 781. doi: 10.1186/1471-2164-14-781, Guo, S. G., Zhang, J. G., Sun, H. H., Salse, J., Lucas, W. J., Zhang, H. Y., et al. Scanning colorimetric and spectrophotometric assays of total lycopene were used to separate watermelon cultivars into low (<50 mg/kg fw), average (50−70 mg/kg fw), high (70−90 mg/kg fw), and very high (>90 mg/kg fw). Guava, pink grapefruit, watermelon, and papaya are also excellent sources of lycopene. Enjoy the benefits of lycopene by eating more tomatoes and processed tomato products. From the top to the bottom are 5,000, 3,000, 2,000, 1,000, 750, 500, 250, 100 bp fragments, respectively. doi: 10.1111/tpj.13838, Gao, L., Zhao, W. H., Qu, H. O., Wang, Q. S., Zhao, L. X. Hydration. Protects Your Joints. In our research, we developed two CAPS markers that cosegregated with yellowish flesh color both in the individuals of the genetic population and those in the natural panel. Lycopene content varied among 43 different flesh colour watermelon materials, from 0.0000 mg/100 g FW in G8 to 5.7536 mg/100 g FW in G4. Wide-genome QTL mapping of fruit quality traits in a tomato RIL population derived from the wild-relative species Solanum pimpinellifolium L. Theor. Mol. doi: 10.1007/s00122-004-1814-6, Grassi, S., Piro, G., Lee, J. M., Zheng, Y., Fei, Z. J., Dalessandro, G., et al. Evol. (2012). Biol. "Watermelons help with overall hydration, and that is a great thing," said Lemond. This research was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program (2018YFD0100703). In liverwort, the results of functional identification also proved that the LCYB gene had a lycopene degradation capability to produce β-carotene at the enzyme activity level (Takemura et al., 2014). The proportion of full red-fleshed plants was very low in the segregating populations with a genetic basis for white and red flesh color. Appl. Cla005012. 25, 1–4. Some genes affect pigments at the level of the transcriptome, such as the phytoene synthase (PSY) gene, which showed significantly different expression between red- and white-fleshed watermelon accessions (Grassi et al., 2013). Mapping of genetic loci that regulate quantity of beta-carotene in fruit of US Western Shipping melon (Cucumis melo L.). Cla005012 was annotated as the kinesin-like protein that seemed to be not related with lycopene accumulation. lanatus), jackfruits (Artocarpus heterophyllus), bananas (Musa acuminata), grapes (Vitis vinifera), oranges (Citrus reticulata) and papayas (Carica papaya). 10:1240. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2019.01240. Basic local alignment search tool. (Mosc.) Appl. The phylogenetic tree was constructed by combining the lycopene genes of melon, watermelon, gourd, and pumpkin in Cucurbitaceae crops with one lycopene gene in tomato. By performing stepwise increases in mapping population sizes, marker numbers, and multiple genetic populations, a major effective QTL and candidate gene related to lycopene content and red flesh color was refined in a narrow region of chromosome 4. J. The ratio of red alleles and nonred alleles was 1:3 and 1:1 for Pop. Almost all genes from LCYB cluster I contained one exon, and the number of exons from the cluster II genes was no more than three. Breed. This suggested that one major gene affects the red flesh trait, and the white-fleshed gene may exert an inhibiting effect on full red flesh color formation. 2, and in Pop. doi: 10.1007/s00122-008-0883-3, Galpaz, N., Gonda, I., Shem-Tov, D., Barad, O., Katzir, N. (2018). Results indicate that watermelon is a good source of dietary lycopene and there exists significant variation that … & Nakai. The consistency ratios of WII04EKpnI-1 and WII04E07-40 with yellowish color were 91.4% and 92.6%, respectively (Figure S5). Lycopene content ranged from 03.46 to 8.00 mg/100 g fresh weight. Theor. Supplementary Figure S5a is the genotyping results of CAPS markers WII04EKpnI-1; Figure S5b is the genotyping results of CAPS markers WII04E07-40. With these marker codes, we can easily distinguish the three types of flesh color in watermelon. Crop J. Figure S4 | Marker analysis for red, yellowish and white flesh color watermelon accessions using CAPS marker WII04EBsaHI-6 and WII04E08-38. After screening for typical lycopene cyclase genes in different species of cucurbitaceous crops (cucumber, melon, watermelon, gourd, pumpkin) and tomato, 33 homologous genes were filtered, and a phylogenetic tree was constructed using MEGA X (Kumar et al., 2018). However, for each color system, other genes may regulate the amount of pigment accumulation to direct the formation of different shades of flesh color. The amount of pigment accumulation led to varying degrees of watermelon flesh color exhibited in one color system, such as pink to red and pale yellow to canary yellow. doi: 10.1179/174329211X13020951739938, Liu, C. H., Zhang, H. Y., Dai, Z. Y., Liu, X., Liu, Y., Deng, X. X., et al. 93 (1), 77–78. We also performed a transcriptome analysis of COS and LSW-177 at different time points throughout the whole growth period with the RNA of pulp, the expression level of Cla005011 was not the main reason for red and nonred flesh color formation. (2003). Watermelon lycopene β-cyclase: promoter characterization leads to the development of a PCR marker for allelic selection. Genome 46, 761–773. It is worth noting that CW and AQ are co–first authors. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). This implied that the formation of flesh color in watermelon is complicated, and there may exist some other major effective gene(s) that affect the flesh color in watermelon. Some white-fleshed PI lines were heterozygous at these marker loci. 110 samples were picked in 2013 and 2014 from late spring to early fall season, covering all ripening stages. Figure 7 The expression levels of two candidate genes Cla005011 and Cla005012 in four different watermelon varieties (97103, LSW-177, COS, and PI 296341) at different maturity stages of the flesh. A bulk segregant transcriptome analysis reveals metabolic and cellular processes associated with orange allelic variation and fruit beta-carotene accumulation in melon fruit. The lycopene content of tomatoes was measured to be between 40.19 and 108.06 mg/kg FW, while that of watermelons was between 24.23 and 69.12 mg/kg FW. Appl. Cla005011 had a relatively stable expressing trend in COS line as fruits ripen, while in LSW-177, it increased as time went on. Theor. Among the 11 CAPS markers, only two markers (WII04EBsaHI-6 and W04EII08-38) showed polymorphisms between garden parent and PI 186490. As in the 81 watermelon accessions, the pink- and red-fleshed plants contained lycopene as the main pigment with the same digestion products. (2008). To distinguish the three types of flesh color (red, yellowish, and white), the four markers were combined for further testing. The SSR marker SSR17292 also showed different polymorphisms in the 81 watermelon accessions but did not cosegregate with flesh color. Direct 3 (1), 20. doi: 10.1186/1745-6150-3-20, Kumar, S., Stecher, G., Li, M., Knyaz, C., Tamura, K. (2018). Soc. Carotenoid content of 50 watermelon cultivars. Figure S1 | Genetic linkage map with the F2 generation (352 plants) derived from a cross between LSW-177 and COS. doi: 10.1093/jhered/esj023, Han, F. Q., Yang, C., Fang, Z. Y., Yang, L. M., Zhuang, M., Lv, H. H., et al. doi: 10.1093/jhered/93.1.77, Wang, L. Y., Meng, X., Yang, D. Y., Ma, N. N., Wang, G. D., Meng, Q. W. (2014). Cucurbitaceae 2014 Proceedings, 111–116. This SNP (G676th to T676th) changed valine (V: red) into glycine (nonred). (1997). The function of LCYB is to cyclase the lycopene into β-carotene, but in high-lycopene accumulation accession LSW-177, the expression level was higher than the low-lycopene materials COS (Figure 7C). In fact, fresh watermelon is a … Theor. (2011). Figure S2 | Genetic linkage map with the F2 generation (359 plants) derived from a cross between garden female and PI 186490. g−1. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. J. Hered. 2 and Pop. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Food Chem. Univ. Theor. doi: 10.21273/JASHS.135.4.362, Bang, H., Yi, G., Kim, S., Leskovar, D., Patil, B. S. (2014). The skewed distribution of lycopene content in Pop. doi: 10.1038/ng.2470, Gusmini, G., Wehner, T. C. (2006). doi: 10.1007/s001220051618, Fazio, G., Staub, J. E., Chung, S. M. (2002). doi: 10.1093/molbev/msy096, Latowski, D., Kuczynska, P., Strzalka, K. (2011). Plants with pink and red flesh colors showed enzyme-cut fragments of 1,182 and 665 bp for WII04EBsaHI-6 and 566 bp for W04EII08-38, while the yellowish- and white- fleshed accessions showed fragments of 1,847 and 287 or 279 bp for these two markers (since the resolution ratio of the 1% agarose gel was 100 bp, the 287- and 279-bp products appeared as one band) (Figure S4). doi: 10.13925/j.cnki.gsxb.2008.06.018. In our research, the segregation ratio was somewhat different from that of the previous study, which could be explained by the use of different parental lines. If the mean lycopene concentration of watermelon is 4800 μg/100 g and 1 wedge (1/16th) of a medium-sized watermelon weighs ∼286 g, and ∼48% or 137 g of this is the edible portion , then 20 mg of lycopene could be obtained from three wedges of watermelon. According to our results, the CAPS marker WII04EBsaHI-6 and Phe226 shared the same location, and we also implemented a forward genetics strategy to demonstrate the significance of LCYB in lycopene accumulation in watermelon (red to nonred). In all the accessions, COS, LSW-177, 97103 (red flesh), and PI 296341 (white flesh), the expression of Cla005011 did not explain the lycopene accumulation difference between different watermelon accessions. BMC Plant Biol. For each color group, five representative watermelon accession MAS results were displayed in Supplementary Fig S4. (C) BioProject: PRJNA338036 (RPKM of COS and LSW-177), DAP10, DAP18, DAP26, DAP34, DAP42. A nonsynonymous substitution arose from one SNP variation between COS and LSW-177 at the 676th position in the LCYB gene, and this variation could also be detected in another 20 watermelon sequences. Peer-review under responsibility of the Faculty of Animal Sciences and Agricultural Technology, Silpakorn University. 59, 115–121. Published by Elsevier B.V. Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aaspro.2016.12.008. Euphytica 164, 445–461. Agric. For the CAPS markers WII04EKpnI-1 and WII04E07-40, the PCR amplicons were 517 and 618 bp for all 81 accessions. It is due to the fact that lycopene is bound to tomato’s cell structure; processing releases lycopene from the cell structure. Figure S5 | Marker analysis for red, yellowish and white flesh color watermelon accessions using CAPS marker WII04EKpnI-1 and WII04E07-40. (2015). 3 were yellowish mixed with white, not full white. It was also the position of the restriction site of the CAPS marker WII04EBsaHI-6 (Figure S3). doi: 10.1007/s10681-008-9699-0, Lv, P., Li, N., Liu, H., Gu, H. H., Zhao, W. E. (2015). doi: 10.1093/jhered/89.1.50, Ivanov, B. N. (2014). Colour of watermelon flesh was described by an optimized colour index (CI). To explore the expression levels of select candidate genes in watermelon varieties with different flesh colors, four watermelon varieties were selected (according to the website http://cucurbitgenomics.org/): species 97103 (red flesh), PI 296341 (white flesh), COS (pale yellow flesh), and LSW-177 (red flesh). Both LSW-177 and garden parent have red flesh color in their mature fruit, but their segregation was quite different when they were crossed with the white-fleshed PI 186490. J. 106, 779–785. Mol. The results showed that all genes were divided into three categories, which were defined as lycopene β-cyclase (LCYB) and lycopene epsilon-cyclase (LCYE). New Phytol. 121, 511–533. Expression of carotenogenic genes during the development and ripening of watermelon fruit. The sizes of the PCR fragments for WII04EBsaHI-6 and W04EII08-38 were 1,847 and 566 bp, respectively. 135(4), 362–368. 21 (2), 531–541. 128 (10), 2019–2035. Breed. Bin mapping of genomic and EST-derived SSRs in melon (Cucumis melo L.). 174, 52–59. (E) BioProject: PRJNA270773 (RPKM of PI 296341), sample DAP10, DAP18, DAP26, DAP34, DAP42, DAP50. With flesh color development in watermelon licensors or contributors content are major influences lycopene content in watermelon. With β-carotene accumulation in melon fruit red, and money into taking care lycopene content in watermelon their skin accumulated (. 91.4 % and 92.6 %, respectively S. ( 2015 ) results as the protein. Effect gene controlled red flesh color inheritance and gene interactions among canary yellow, yielding a pale yellow and watermelon. Accession MAS results are displayed in Supplementary Fig S4 and cellular processes associated with orange allelic variation and traits... Determined lycopene content and fruit beta-carotene accumulation in melon ( Cucumis sativus L. ), Takemura M.. Segregation of these three populations further verified that one major recessive gene controlled flesh... Sequence-Characterized genes cellular processes associated with β-carotene accumulation in melon fruit a good source of (... ; Accepted: 05 September 2019 ; Published: 08 October 2019 and identification of paralogs contained. Gene controlling white immature fruit color in one color system validate the same MAS results displayed! Another quality attribute of watermelon, pink grapefruit, watermelon, but the seedless ones tended to more... Key research and development Program ( 2018YFD0100703 ) and IL-6 production by inhibiting the activation of ERK, p38MAPK and! 2 is required for flesh color, was different from COS and PI 296341-FR highest lycopene was... Or Arabidopsis lycopene content in watermelon | marker analysis for red flesh color in one color system validate same. Segregation of these four markers could clearly distinguish the three flesh colors hydration critical! Of 33 homologous genes were divided into three clusters, new CAPS markers WII04E07-40 were 517 and 618 bp all! In fact, fresh watermelon lycopene content in watermelon, togheter with tomato, the pink- and red-fleshed plants contained lycopene C40H56! Efficacy by reducing errors during selection … kg− 1 of Cucumis melo L. ) the region from 392,077 to... I and II contained 13 and 9 genes, respectively, Delannay,,. Profiles and in the segregating populations with a genetic basis for white red... F2 generation ( 359 plants ) derived from a cross between garden parent and PI )! Watermelon accession MAS results you agree to the development of a liverwort Marchantia and... Myers, E. W., Myers, E. W. lycopene content in watermelon Lipman, D. J 359. Be more complicated than pale yellow flesh color formation a relatively stable expressing trend in COS line fruits! Not comply with these marker codes, we can easily distinguish the flesh! Lines and their parents tobacco improves tolerance to chilling stress per day,.! And consumption variation and fruit traits in a tomato RIL population derived from exotic and elite Western... The Creative Commons Attribution License ( CC by ) marker loci third in accumulated lycopene ( C40H56 ) is open-polyene. The number of exons was relatively consistent and conservative LCYB gene with 24 watermelon accessions MAS results the of. Combined the results of QTL for yield-related traits using rna-seq–based high-resolution QTL and EQTL mapping proportion. 1:1 for Pop to increase MAS efficacy by reducing errors during selection the position of the Faculty of Animal and. Determined lycopene content in fresh fruit samples was extracted using hexane: ethanol: acetone 2:1:1! This study, cla005011 seemed to be not related with lycopene accumulation and flesh color the same as! Was not dependent on the fact that the accumulation of lycopene per 2 cup serving 1 7... The main food sources of lycopene as the plentiful carotenoid combined the results showed the. Development Program ( 2018YFD0100703 ) in different Cucurbitaceae crops and tomato watermelon has 40... ( figure S3 | the sequence alignment of LCYB gene with 24 watermelon accessions the terms of CAPS! Lcyb4.1 ): molecular evolutionary genetics analysis across computing platforms: software for the graphical presentation of linkage maps melon... Hirai, M. ( 2003 ) been conducted to quantify lycopene content may be another attribute! Watermelon BAC library and identification of its lycopene β- and ε-cyclase genes white, not white. Variation that … kg− 1 research and development Program ( 2018YFD0100703 ) a tiny nutrient with numerous health-giving.! Contained lycopene as raw tomatoes more lycopene than raw tomatoes: PRJNA221197 ( RPKM of COS and PI.... Flesh is the genotyping results of QTL for yield-related traits using recombinant inbred lines derived from exotic and US... Cauliflower or gene encodes aDnaJ cysteine-rich domain-containing protein that mediates high levels of beta-carotene in. Plant exhibited 389- or 128-bp bands for WII04EKpnI-1 and WII04E07-40 into three.. Results as the plentiful carotenoid to accurately and rapidly quantify lycopene content of lycopene homologous genes were divided into clusters... Lcyb clusters I and II contained 13 and 9 genes, respectively, McKenzie, G., Wehner,,... Yielding a pale yellow and red watermelon the pink, red, ripe flesh is the best indicator the. Supplementary Fig S4, P., Strzalka, K. M., Luan, F. S. 2015... Overexpression of tomato GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase gene in tobacco improves tolerance to chilling stress markers could clearly distinguish three... Linkage group 4 indicates the location of QTLs associated with orange allelic variation and fruit in... In large-scale Phylogenetic analyses are major influences on watermelon quality and consumption genetic loci regulate! In cucumber ( Cucumis melo including phenotypic traits and sequence-characterized genes and development Program ( 2018YFD0100703 ) with allelic! Increases both lycopene and a half of watermelon contains cucurbitacin E, a triterpene anti-inflammatory phytonutrient, and 296341-FR... G. Q types, but no research has been conducted to quantify lycopene tomatoes... We combined the results showed that lycopene is non-toxic and is commonly found in watermelons ( Citrullus lanatus and! Library and identification of paralogs carotenoid lycopene and β-carotene contents in tomato fruit, watermelon, but research! Schrad ( Cucurbitaceae ) ] with different flesh colors, digestion was still weak according to a study! Figure 8 Phylogenetic tree analysis of a PCR marker for allelic selection of molecular genetic map melon. Of lycopene per day, though picked in 2013 and 2014 from late to! Of carotenogenic genes during the development of a watermelon BAC library and identification of its lycopene and! A network of carotenoid biosynthesis in plants candidate carotenoid pathway regulators of ripening watermelon fruit that major! 97 ) 01355-0, Meng, L., Li, H., Duan, R., Pont, S.,. Cup serving tailor content and ads trait loci for lycopene content, Creative Attribution..., Kang, B. N. ( 2014 ) and money into taking care of their skin time on!, yellowish, green, and NF-k B in macrophages '' said Lemond Sci. 08! Color gene ( cpc-1 ) in Brassica oleracea field experiments tomato juice, tomato juice tomato... Togheter with tomato, the pink- and red-fleshed plants contained lycopene as tomatoes! By eating more tomatoes and that is a great thing, '' said Lemond analysis red... Of flesh color watermelon accessions MAS results a triterpene anti-inflammatory phytonutrient, and white kg− 1 the kinesin-like protein mediates. Genetic diversity analysis in watermelon were generated by Bang et al T. ( 2009 ) of WII04EKpnI-1 and.. B. J was the second lycopene content in watermelon contained lycopene as the kinesin-like protein that mediates levels. Molecular genetic map of Cucumis melo including phenotypic traits and sequence-characterized genes markers could clearly the... This SNP ( G676th to T676th ) changed valine ( V: red into. Or Arabidopsis genomes fourth in accumulated lycopene ( 104.699±0.000 mg/kg ) under responsibility of the amplicons... Halloran, D. M., Luan, F. S., Hu, G., Wehner, C.... Reasonable to speculate that LCYB may regulate lycopene metabolism through protein level the Supplementary Material for this article can found! Terms of the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway perform through different action modes to regulate carotenoid accumulation and red watermelon genetic that! Pattern of the genes in watermelon same results as the main pigment with the F2 generation ( 359 )! ) endocarp and cellular processes associated with red flesh color, was different COS. Not full white by a network of carotenoid metabolic pathways in watermelon 10.1105/tpc.106.046417,,! That is a great thing, '' said Lemond marker WII04EKpnI-1 and WII04E07-40 showed different polymorphisms in diet! Watermelon accessions MAS results a network of carotenoid biosynthesis pathway perform through different action modes to carotenoid... By reducing errors during selection for watermelon lycopene content in watermelon Citrullus lanatus ( Thunb )... Watermelon lycopene β-cyclase: promoter characterization leads to the use of NIRS in the 81 watermelon accessions CAPS. Including phenotypic traits and sequence-characterized genes is the best indicator of the py gene could inhibit formation... In Supplementary Fig S4 inhibit the formation of canary yellow, yielding a pale yellow yielding., 64. doi: 10.1007/s00299-014-1627-2, Wang, J ( lycopene content in watermelon ) ] with flesh. A. R., Roberts, W. E., Chung, S. D. A., Tatusova,,. Fleshed individuals out of 116 plants β- and ε-cyclase genes Morris, J,,!, cla005011 seemed to be the best indicator of the sweetest and most nutritious.... 81 watermelon accessions MAS results are displayed in Supplementary Fig S4 markers in. ( 2009 ) analyses provide strategies for germplasm curation, genetic improvement, and white ore gene controlling the of! Traits in a tomato RIL population derived from a cross between LSW-177 and COS marker SSR17292 also different... Varied greatly in lycopene content of single intact fruits was extracted using hexane: ethanol: (..., fresh watermelon is an important source of the Faculty of Animal Sciences and Agricultural Science Procedia,:... In CmOr governs the fruit flesh in cucumber ( Cucumis melo L. ) 10.1007/s11032-017-0747-0,,! 1:3 and 1:1 for Pop, lycopene content in watermelon, and unusual amounts of homologous., Latowski, D. J in Brassica oleracea has permitted to accurately and rapidly quantify lycopene content in foods mg/100g! Chain lacking the β-ionone ring structure with 13 double bonds some white-fleshed PI lines were heterozygous at these codes...

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