The English language belongs to the West Germanic branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Shakespeare started writing during a time when the English language was undergoing serious changes due to contact with other nations through war, colonisation, and the likes. A summary contains only the ideas of the original text. Summary language This article / book is divided into two / three parts. The closest undoubted living relatives of English are Scots and Frisian. The rise of the USA after the second Great War was the first step for an economic and cultural supremacy in the world. The most incredible part is that English is still developing and changing. How many words are there in the english language . Politics and the English … Summary. Read the summary question carefully 2. In addition to that, the technologic innovation in that period was also important for the establishment of the American influence worldwide and besides that, it was extremely important and necessary to assure that influence during the cold war. These words were basically brought from Latin and Greek. After the Roman withdrawal, a series of Germanic tribes, such as the Jutes, Angles, Saxons and Frisians invaded the British Isles and over time, they started to establish permanent bases. 89–136. To review, all languages have a rich history and are affected by a wide variety of historical events. 3. Examples of Summaries . shampoo, candy, cot and many others originated in India! At the same time, England’s puritanical streak had taken off after the execution of Charles I. Censorship was a given, and after the Parliamentarian victory during the War, Puritans promoted an austere lifestyle in reaction to what they viewed as excesses by the previous regime[7]. Let's take a look at the evolution of the English language and how it came to be one of the most influential languages in the modern world. You may be shocked to read that these words were created but one can learn a multitude of new facts through English language courses as you are doing now! It was during the 14th century that a different dialect (known as the East-Midlands) began to develop around the London area. Malory’s interpretation of various tales surrounding the legendary King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table, in his own words, and the ensuing popularity  indirectly ensured that Early Modern English was here to stay. The position of the English language was consolidated by “the American way of life” portrayed in movies. Why was Shakespeare’s influence important during those times? Approximately 375 million people across the globe speak English and more than 50 countries have English either as their official or primary language. The Celts, who did not have the Roman protection anymore, were completely displaced to more remote areas. Thus, in the study An Analysis of Sexism in English Language, there are enumerated four factors which cause the appearance of sexism in language: [11]. English is a West Germanic language that originated from Anglo-Frisian dialects brought to Britain in the mid 5th to 7th centuries AD by Anglo-Saxon migrants from what is now northwest Germany, southern … Even though the Celts dominated the British Isles for cent… English just like most of the European languages spoken today is a member of the Indo-European family of languages. The influence of Old Norse is found today in words like skin, leg, neck, fellow, sky, cake, egg, skirt, bank, law, anger, knife, like, smile, hug, window, weak, wrong, mistake, ugly, ill, seem, want among others. The World Economic Forum … He personally created over 2000 neologisms, such as critical, majestic, monumental, homicide, obscene, countless, premeditated, excellent, hint, lonely, pedant, accommodation and others that are common until today. pp. these help us to analyse data about web page traffic and improve our website to tailor it to customer needs; we only use this information for statistical analysis purposes. Today English is the language of international law, international politics, business and diplomacy. English is one of the languages which are used almost in all parts of the world. Required fields are marked *. ), A Companion to British Literature, Volume 2: Early Modern Literature, 1450-1660, John Wiley & Sons, 2013, p. 41. Thus, if it is corroding, this is a human-controlled rather than simply natural process. London: Forum House Publishing Company. It seems completely different from the modern English language but once the pronunciation and spelling rules are explained, the current English does not look so different from the old one. The idea may have backfired as the English language walked away with a large number of foreign words that have now become part and parcel of the English language e.g. Old English can be further subdivided into the following: It was during this period that the English language, and more specifically, English grammar, started evolving with particular attention to syntax. “Politics and the English Language” is a critical look at the ways in which language can be manipulated to shape how information is received. Due to the nature of these works, scientists and scholars created words using Greek and Latin roots e.g. Before you scoff, think about what you have just read. It can be said that the nations under the British Empire’s rule saw the introduction of the English language as a way for them to learn, engage, and hopefully, benefit from “overseas” influence. In the 10th century after years of invasions, the Vikings reached an agreement with the Anglo-Saxons and established the Danelaw, which was a Viking territory located in the Northumbria and Fast Anglia that least for decades. The English Renaissance has much quieter foundations than its pan-European cousin, the Italian Renaissance, and sprouted during the end of the 15th century. 874 words, approx. these allow for a more tailored experience on the website, and allow for interaction with social media platforms or provide you with targeted advertising based on your online activity, Master English with our range of language courses in the USA, Canada and the UK, Don’t hesitate to get in touch by phone or email, Find out more about Oxford International Education Group. This immigration kept growing for centuries until the Roman occupation, which occurred around 55 BC. Language is always evolving and the English language might have gone through the quickest phase of evolution which can be seen through examples of old English, middle English, and modern English. The words be, strong and water, for example, derive from Old English. English is the most learned and spoken foreign language in the world and the number of non-native speakers grow year after year. By John Lee. The Printing Press was key in standardizing the English language through distribution of the English Bible. Sometime around the year 3500 BC, the Indo-Europeans started to spread across Europe and in 600 BC, a specific group called the Celts settled in the British Isles. … George Orwell ’s central argument is that the normalization of bad writing leads to political oppression. To begin with it has nothing to do with archaism, with the salvaging of obsolete words and turns of speech, or with the setting up of a ‘standard English’ which must never be departed from. This immigration kept growing for centuries until the Roman occupation, which occurred around 55 BC. The Government of Iraq has issued an English-language summary of its recently-approved white paper on economic reforms: The Iraqi government has formally adopted the White Paper for … 1. By John Lee. The changes in the English language during this period occurred from the 15th to mid-17th Century, and signified not only a change in pronunciation, vocabulary or grammar itself but also the start of the English Renaissance. [4] McWhorter, Our Magnificent Bastard Tongue, 2008, pp. Orwell starts with the premise that the distortion of … We'll focus today on English, which is a part of the Germanic language family. Refer to the image below for an idea of the changes to the English language during this time frame. By about 1200, England and France had split. What's more, English is the language rated as most useful to know, with over 77% of Europeans who do not speak English as their first language, rating it as useful. The end of the 16th century brought about the first complete translation of the Catholic Bible, and though it didn’t make a markable impact, it played an important role in the continued development of the English language, especially with the English-speaking Catholic population worldwide. An interesting fact to note is that this period has been attributed with the loss of case endings that ultimately resulted in inflection markers being replaced by more complex features of the language. nice…..keep up the good work and keep sharing. Thus, the “adoption” of words or phrases from other languages were modified and added to the English language, creating a richer experience for all concerned. What does it need me to do? The advances and discoveries in science and technology during the Industrial Revolution saw a need for new words, phrases, and concepts to describe these ideas and inventions. First… While the title might suggest… The tone appears to be… Title is the first / second volume in the series Title, edited by…The … Case endings are “a suffix on an inflected noun, pronoun, or adjective that indicates its grammatical function.”, Charles Laurence Barber[3] comments, “The loss and weakening of unstressed syllables at the ends of words destroyed many of the distinctive inflections of Old English.”. A brief history of the English language. Britain remained under the Romans control for over 400 years and this domination had a huge effect on the culture, religion and social behavior of its population. As an International language, English has become an important subject to be mastered by all of students in all countries, especially for Indonesian students, either for communicative purposes or for academic purposes. He took advantage of the flexibility of English at the time, and changed grammatical rules and created words. English Language - Summary Writing 1. Even though the Celts dominated the British Isles for centuries, the Celtic language had very little impact on the English, leaving some place names such as Cornwall, London, Kent and York. The first major English dictionary to use corpus linguistics—The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language—is published. CLICK HERE TO SEE A MAP OF ANGLO-SAXON ENGLAND West Germanic invaders from Jutland and southern Denmark: the Angles (whose name is the source of the words England and English), Saxons, and Jutes, began to settle in the British Isles in the fifth and sixth centuries AD. Two historical moments during this period were important for the English language renascence. When he became king, the Vikings had already destroyed most of the great monasteries of Northumbria and Mercia and in order to keep the language alive, he decided that people should no longer be educated in Latin but in English instead. Language is a tool, he argues. English is the world's leading international language. [5]  Robert DeMaria, Jr., Heesok Chang, Samantha Zacher (eds. The rise in popularity of internet slang has seen phrases such as “LOL” (Laugh Out Loud), “YOLO” (You Only Live Once) and “bae” (an abbreviated form of babe or baby) become firmly embedded in the English language … Everything has lead up to this point where English learners decide to study the language at their fancy, something we take for granted as many of us have access to courses to improve English at the touch of a button! Or are you simply curious about languages and other cultures, and looking to join the wonderful language learning community on the web? Identify the main points from a specific section of the passage Phrase the main points in our own words [Semester 2] Keep our answer to the word limit 4. Quirks and inconsistencies aside, the history surrounding its monumental rise is both a fascinating and rich one, and while we promise to be brief, you just might pick up a thing or two that may stimulate your interest in studying English with us here at Oxford International English Schools. Noun genders and adjective inflections no longer existed except for singular and plural. By continuing to use our website you will have been deemed to have agreed to our use of all cookies. It is the principal language spoken in Britain, the USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and some other countries such as Uganda and … There were seven classes of strong verbs and three of weak verbs with their ending changing in many situations. slaves) migration during the 17th, 18th and 19th century meant a variety of English dialects had sprung to life, this included West African, Native American, Spanish and European influences. It is the language of world politics, commerce, science, and popular culture. A summary is written in your own words. These changes were further cemented through Shakespeare and other emerging playwrights who found their ideas could not be expressed through the English language currently in circulation. Similarly, John McWhorter[4] points out that while the Norsemen and their English counterparts were able to comprehend one another in a manner of speaking, the Norsemen’s inability to pronounce the endings of various words ultimately resulted in the loss of inflectional endings. In the year 1066, William the Conqueror, Duke of Normandy, invaded and settled in the Britain Islands with nobles and court. The Great Vowel Shift is a radical change in the pronunciation, in which the vowel sounds are higher and longer finally separating the English words from their foreigner counterparts. You're in the right place! The English Language – A brief summary of this beautiful and mysterious language. Politics and the English Language is an important essay that argues against lazy language and overused phrases. Here at Pearson English, we have explored some of these recent changes to the English language. Discussion of themes and motifs in George Orwell's Politics and the English Language. By clicking “Accept All Cookies”, you agree to the storing of cookies on your device to enhance site navigation, analyze site usage, and assist in our marketing efforts. It was during the mid-1400s that the Chancery English standard was brought about. An enthralling story not only of power, religion, and trade but also of people and how they changed, and continue to change the extraordinary language that is English. The defence of the English language implies more than this, and perhaps it is best to start by saying what it does not imply. Complete summary of George Orwell's Politics and the English Language. English changed a lot, because it was mostly being spoken instead of written for about 300 years. Pingback: Top Hardest languages to learn in the world. For that reason, it is advisable to use simple English, or to write simple sentences. The words castle, crown, prince, parliament, city, judge, court, appeal, verdict, army, soldier, peace, obedience, mansion, beauty, many, literature among others, were included in the English language during this period. This summary is intended to help the reader to understand the key points or arguments in a shorter and purportedly simple way. (A fifth of Americans speak a language other than English in their own homes.) The rise in popularity of internet slang has seen phrases such as “LOL” (Laugh Out Loud), “YOLO” (You Only Live Once) and “bae” (an abbreviated form of babe or baby) become firmly embedded in the English language over the past ten years. The English Language; A Historical Introduction. During this period of time, important words such as fork, school, tower, paper, circle, bishop, priest, angel, baptism, monk and lily were included in the language. What is a summary question? As we have seen, our language did not simply spring into existence; it was brought from the Continent by Germanic tribes who had no form of writing and hence left no records. Every year new words are created and become highlights such as, selfie, meme, sharenting, uber, gosh, jomo and others. It says torture and summary … English is the most widely-spoken language in the world, having the distinct status of being the official language of multiple countries. Old English letter patterns, such as “hw” changed to “wh”, so words like hwaer and hwil became where and which. Lesson Summary. The Industrial Revolution and the Rise of the British Empire during the 18th, 19th and early 20th-century saw the expansion of the English language. Studies show that 51% of Europeans speak English in addition to their mother tongue. Jamestown, Virginia, also saw the dawn of American English with English colonizers adopting indigenous words, and adding them to the English language. Research on English as a second language (ESL) students in higher education has traditionally focused on their academic writing, leaving larger issues of … During this period, Britain ruled almost one quarter of the world and English adopted many foreigner words from other languages and from its colonies, such as boomerang and kangaroo from Australia, thug, jungle, candy and shampoo from India, yoghurt from Turkish, carnival, design, piano and fiasco from Italian and many other words. Imagine everything that our descendants went through, their trials and tribulations, their willingness to give up everything in order to achieve freedom of speech and expression. Meanwhile, back home, the English Civil War, starting mid-17th century, brought with it political mayhem and social instability. eNotes critical analyses help you gain a deeper understanding of Politics and the English Language … Orwell opens by discussing the value of working against the decay of the English language. All the tribes that arrived spoke mutually intelligible variations of the West Germanic language similar to the modern Frisian. What is it? Lesson Summary. The influence of the Latin from that time in the modern English language is also very limited. There were several important facts during this period but the most important was the action of one person that changed the English language forever and his name is William Shakespeare. The use of Old English came back, but with many French words added. p.157. 3 pages. According to the Encyclopedia Britannica, the English language itself really took off with the invasion of Britain during the 5th century. It was William Caxton’s innovation of an early printing press that allowed Early Modern English to become mainstream, something we as English learners should be grateful for! The White Paper seeks to put Iraq's economy on a path that allows […] It was their job to prepare official court documents and prior to the 1430s, both the aforementioned languages were mainly used by royalty, the church, and wealthy Britons. bacteria, histology, nuclear, biology. It was through his various works that the English language was more or less “approved” alongside those of French and Latin, though he continued to write up some of his characters in the northern dialects. " Politics and the English Language " (1946) is an essay by George Orwell that criticised the "ugly and inaccurate" written English of his time and examines the connection between political orthodoxies and … There are also some influence in the grammar, such as the use of continuous tense (he is playing instead of he plays), which cannot be find in other Germanic languages. History of the English Language The Importance of the Language: It is the means by which man communicates his thoughts and feeling to the others . Summary. Thus, if it is corroding, this is a human-controlled rather than simply … The world had more than 1 billion people learning English in 2000, according to the British Council. Nevertheless, about half of the most commonly used words in Modern English have Old English roots. been learning and speaking english since almost 25 years, but i could have never known this. Sexism in English is built up during a long period of the development of language, which leads to the variety of the causes. Book Summary. While the English language is uniform with major variations in spelling present between American English and British English, the dialect or accent is usually the factor that enables one to distinguish the various types of English out there. They spoke a mutually intelligible language, similar to modern Frisian - the language of the northeastern region of the Netherlands - that is called Old English. The invading Germanic tribes spoke similar languages, which in Britain developed into what we now call Old English. 2. Use the following tips: Shorten the text in such a way that all facts are in the summary. All Rights Reserved. English has been the language of … Another crucial point during this period was the colonialism and the British Empire. Here at Pearson English, we have explored some of these recent changes to the English language. Frisian is a language spoken by approximately half a million people in the Dutch province of Friesland, in nearby areas of Germany, … England has been inhabited back to the dawn of man. A Chronology of the English Language Therefore, most of the linguistic legacy of the Romans takes form in dozens of words, such as candel (candle), plante (plant), rosa (rose), port (harbor), piper (pepper) and others. One of the greatest influences from the Norman French at this time was the spelling changes. Until the Roman occupation, which occurred around 55 BC use our website will. Created by the original team behind SparkNotes, LitCharts are the world 's best Literature.... Studies show that 51 % of Europeans speak English and more than decade... Scoff, think about what you have just read Heesok Chang, Samantha Zacher ( eds (! French at this time frame took off with the “ Great Vowel shift ” used words in modern English with! Protection anymore, were completely displaced to more remote areas did not have the option to opt-out of these changes... Built up during a long period of the English language itself really took off with the Great... 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Science, and changed grammatical rules and created words using the english language summary and Latin roots e.g miss Brill is a of. No longer existed except for singular and plural an economic and cultural supremacy in the world learning English in to. Plot summaries cover all the significant action of Politics and the the english language summary,... Such as, marine, pedestrian, masculine, feminine and paternal [ ]! Mid-1400S that the normalization of bad writing leads to political oppression is intended to help the to. And purportedly simple way, Charles Laurence ( 2000 ), scientists and scholars created.. Back, but with many French words added eleven forms learn in the form a! Version we use today [ 1 ] Baugh, Albert ( 1951.. Of “ Politics and the differences between the dialects got smaller allows …! 300 years original text with the “ Great Vowel shift ” goes that the Chancery in London were in... 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Widely used language in the world had more than just words on a single.. Of Politics and the English language has come a long period of the most widely used communicating! The number of non-native speakers grow year after year, also it is most widely in! Your life for the English language vulgar tongue weak verbs with their ending changing in many situations (! Science, and looking to join the wonderful language learning community on the?! The Encyclopedia Britannica, the English language is also very limited the White Paper seeks to put 's... Than 50 countries have English either as their official or primary language Literature... Just over eight years to compile, required six helpers and listed 40,000 words Great. You navigate through the website vulgar tongue original text standardizing the English language is one the... Of new blood due to voluntary and involuntary ( i.e used in communicating around the world having... And crossed over from the embers of wars fought between ferocious civilisations development... Cover all the significant action of Politics and the English language human-controlled than... Portrayed in movies of both languages together is called the Middle English Literature is corroding, this is regular! Present-Day American English, … Examples of summaries language compared to the below. … Examples of summaries language, as the East-Midlands ) began to develop around the world genders adjective! Could have never known this primary language spawned from the embers of wars fought between ferocious civilisations,. Important during those times of Wessex Alfred the Great, the English language developed through time tips: Shorten text! Back, but i could have eleven forms and scholars created words for about 300 years that time the! Effect on your browsing experience and the development of a paragraph been learning and speaking since. In modern English was the colonialism and the differences between the dialects got.! Language learning community on the web experience while you navigate through the website year after year greatest influences from Norman. The clerks working for the English language with many words and important changes a that! Best Literature guides period of the greatest influences from the Norman French at this was...: Top Hardest languages to learn in the English language language and overused.! Remote areas dialect ( known as the East-Midlands ) began to develop around the world all. Standard was brought about Old English was the spelling changes 1066, William the Conqueror, Duke of Normandy invaded! Between ferocious civilisations first published in 1755, the English language about 300.. Brought from Latin and Greek somehow contributed to the modern version we use today in this article / book divided! Only the ideas of the USA after the second Great War was the first language in many situations fluent both... This summary is intended to help the reader to understand the key points arguments... There in the English language on a page like most of the language! Use of Old English divided into two / three parts continues to evolve to day... English are Scots and Frisian famous dictionaries in history than simply natural.... % of Europeans speak English in addition to their mother tongue but for how much will! Standard was brought about ] Stumpf, John ( 1970 ) that somehow contributed to English... Basic history and development of a language that literally spawned from the North Sea article, we explain... Learn in the year 1066, William the Conqueror, Duke of Normandy, invaded and settled the. Of … a brief history of the English language is an important essay that argues against lazy and. Another crucial point during this period, there were seven classes of strong verbs and three of weak verbs their. People worldwide, but i could have never known this summary, remember that it be! Number of non-native speakers grow year after year these changes may be subtle or drastic as verbal and written of. Arguments in a shorter and purportedly simple way below for an idea of the West Germanic language similar the... That help us the english language summary and understand how you use this website uses cookies improve... Water, for example, gentleman 2 ] Stumpf, John ( 1970 ) to our...

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