And over time, some of them will prevail. [65] In 2013 a Russian State Duma Oleg Nilov and former fellow Russian politician Sergey Glazyev referred to political adversaries as "different personalities in some sort of orange or bright shorts" and "diplomats and bureaucrats that appeared after the years of the 'orange' hysteria". Additional evidence of Yushchenko's popularity and at least partial support among the SBU officers is shown by the fact that several embarrassing proofs of electoral fraud, including incriminating wiretap recordings of conversations among the Yanukovych campaign and government officials discussing how to rig the election, were provided to the Yushchenko camp. As a resolution, the court ordered a revote of the run-off to be held on 26 December 2004. Pg 14, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Russian military intervention (2014–present), 2011 South Ossetian presidential election, protests following the 2011 Russian elections, a bill criminalising gay "propaganda" in Russia, Ukrainian integration into the European Union, Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia, Ukraine's Orange Revolution: Causes and Consequences, The Colour Revolutions in the Former Soviet Republics: Ukraine, Ukrainian Politics, Energy and Corruption under Kuchma and Yushchenko, Savik Shuster: I’m the only thing to remain after "orange revolution", Putin calls 'color revolutions' an instrument of destabilisation, Ukraine is Not Russia:Comparing Youth Political Activism, "Yanukovich declared winner in Ukraine poll", "Viktor Yanukovych sworn in as Ukraine president", http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/country_profiles/1102303.stm, http://www.osw.waw.pl/en/publikacje/osw-studies/2005-07-13/orange-revolution-ukraine-attempt-to-understand-reasons, Understanding Ukrainian Politics: Power, Politics, and Institutional Design, Revolution in Orange: The Origins of Ukraine's Democratic Breakthrough, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Civil Resistance and Power Politics: The Experience of Non-violent Action from Gandhi to the Present, Ukraine 2004: Informal Networks, Transformation of Social Capital and Coloured Revolutions, Yanukovych says presidential election scenario of 2004 won't be repeated in 2010, Official CEC announcement of results as of 10 January 2005, BACK CHANNELS: A Crackdown Averted; How Top Spies in Ukraine Changed the Nation's Path, "How Yanukovych Forged the Elections. This new wave of younger people had different views of the main figures in Ukraine. Image of europe, maidan, deputies - 83100772 Yushchenko was declared the official winner and with his inauguration on 23 January 2005 in Kyiv, the Orange Revolution ended. Orange did not have any prior ideological connotation. [10] In the aftermath of the 2011 South Ossetian presidential election (in December 2011) and during the protests following the 2011 Russian elections (also in December 2011) the Ambassador of South Ossetia to the Russian Federation Dmitry Medoyev and Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin and Putin's supporters named the Orange Revolution an infamous foreknowledge for their countries. The Orange Revolution of the winter of 2004-2005 in Ukraine was a series of grass-roots, non-violent political protests that involved hundreds of thousands of people demonstrating in the capital city of Kiev.. [citation needed], The Yushchenko campaign publicly called for protest on the dawn of election day, 21 November 2004, when allegations of fraud began to spread in the form of leaflets printed and distributed by the 'Democratic Initiatives' foundation, announcing that Yushchenko had won – on the basis of its exit poll. Since no candidate had won more than 50% of the cast ballots, Ukrainian law mandated a run-off vote between two leading candidates. On 1 October 2010, the Constitutional Court of Ukraine overturned the 2004 amendments, considering them unconstitutional.[40]. Under intense scrutiny by domestic and international observers, the second run-off was declared to be "free and fair". 2004 – The Orange Revolution in Ukraine, followed the disputed second round of the 2004 presidential election and led to the annulment of the result and the repeat of the round—the leader of the opposition Viktor Yushchenko was declared President, defeating Viktor Yanukovych. [53][54][55][56] No officials involved in the 2004 elections that preceded the Orange Revolution were convicted for election fraud. The Cassette Scandal sparked the public's desire to create a social reform movement. However, as it was clear that neither nominee was close enough to collecting an outright majority in the first round, challenging the initial result would not have affected the final outcome of the round. The Orange Revolution and U.S. Policy At a pivotal moment in their nation’s history, the Ukrainian people rejected a stolen election and chose freedom, democracy, and the rule of law over corruption and intimidation. By employing varying combinations of persuasion and deterrence tailored to the particular institutions … Yuschenko was on the same level as his constituents and presented his ideas in a "non-Soviet" way. [7] Nationwide,[8] the revolution was highlighted by a series of acts of civil disobedience, sit-ins, and general strikes organized by the opposition movement. The election fraud emphasised the Ukrainian citizens' desire for a more pluralistic type of government. [49][50][51] President Yanukovych stated he moved "Day of Freedom" because of "numerous appeals from the public". From 22 November Pora! The Orange Revolution. Glorious Revolution, events of 1688–89 that resulted in the deposition of English King James II and the accession of his daughter Mary II and her husband, William III, prince of Orange and stadholder of the Netherlands. Wilson, Andrew. [11][63][64] Putin also claimed that the organisers of the Russian protests in December 2011 were former (Russian) advisors to Yushchenko during his presidency and were transferring the Orange Revolution to Russia. Many of the government officials who were on his side went on to fully support the election campaign of Yushchenko and well as his ideas in general. [14] Yanukovych was ousted from power four years later following the February 2014 Euromaidan clashes in Kyiv's Independence Square. Apparently (in particular) the Party of Regions, All-Ukrainian Union "Fatherland" and Svoboda had applied for a permit to demonstrate there. CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (, McFaul, Michael. in Civil Resistance and Power Politics: The Experience of Non-violent Action from Gandhi to the Present. The Orange Revolution (Ukrainian: Помаранчева революція, Pomarancheva revolyutsiya) was a series of protests and political events that took place in Ukraine from late November 2004 to January 2005, in the immediate aftermath of the run-off vote of the 2004 Ukrainian presidential election, which was claimed to be marred by massive corruption, voter intimidation and electoral fraud. Confronting the Truth: Examining the dynamics and mechanics of Truth and Reconciliation Commissions in South Africa, Peru, East Timor and Morocco. These accusations were reinforced by similar allegations, though at a lesser scale, during the first presidential run of 31 October. (2007) The Role of Digital Networked Technologies in the Ukrainian Orange Revolution. Between that time frame, there were violent protests because the people were unhappy about the elections in Ukraine. The Orange Revolution was mainly based in Western and Central Ukraine and revealed a deep cultural‐political divide in Ukraine. undertook the management of the protests in Kyiv until the end of the demonstration.[23]. For question on ultimate source of orders and mobilisation details see Lehrke, Jesse Paul. According to Abel Polese, Kuchma was concerned about its reputation in the West; because of lack of natural resources to finance his regime he had to show a commitment to democracy in order to be targeted for Western financial assistance. "Ukraine is a European democratic country", said Yushchenko in a sort of political will at the polling station. The people criticized the election results and wanted to take a stand against the corrupt politics of Ukraine. That's why the ideals of the Orange Revolution won". Cited by lists all citing articles based on Crossref citations.Articles with the Crossref icon will open in a new tab. [57][58][59], A 2007 research revealed that opinion about the nature of the Orange Revolution had barely shifted since 2004 and that the attitudes about it in the country remained divided along the same largely geographical lines that it had been at the time of the revolution (West and Central Ukraine being more positive about the events and South and Eastern Ukraine more cynical (seniors also)). The final results showed a clear victory for Yushchenko, who received about 52% of the vote, compared to Yanukovych's 44%. After a clear lack of faith in the government had been instilled in the Ukrainian population, Yushchenko's role had never been more important to the revolution. The local councils in Kyiv, Lviv,[24] and several other cities passed, with the wide popular support of their constituency, a largely symbolic refusal to accept the legitimacy of the official election results, and Yushchenko took a symbolic presidential oath. [citation needed] In such a scenario, this "presidential oath" Yushchenko took could be used to lend legitimacy to the claim that he, rather than his rival who tried to gain the presidency through alleged fraud, was a true commander-in-chief authorised to give orders to the military and security agencies. were able to use mobile phones and the Internet to coordinate election monitoring and mass protests.[38][39]. Supreme Court of Ukraine decision regarding the annulment of 21 November vote. Georgiy Gongadze, a Ukrainian journalist and the founder of Ukrayinska Pravda (an Internet newspaper well known for publicising the corruption or unethical conduct of Ukrainian politicians) was kidnapped and murdered in 2000. The Singing Revolution is the name given to the step-by-step process that led to the reestablishment of Estonian independence in 1991. Farewell to the Orange Revolution, Ukraine election: Yanukovych urges Tymoshenko to quit, Yanukovych appeals to the nation, asks Tymoshenko to step down, Akhmetov: Ideals of 'Orange Revolution' won at election in 2010, Yulia Tymoshenko’s address to the people of Ukraine, Day of Freedom: here comes the end to revolutions, Yanukovych signs decree on new holiday replacing Ukrainian Independence Day. On 1 December 2004, the Verkhovna Rada passed a resolution that strongly condemned pro-separatist and federalisation actions, and passed a non-confidence vote in the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine, a decision Prime Minister Yanukovych refused to recognise. [48] This date was moved to 22 January (and merged with Unification Day) by President Viktor Yanukovych late December 2011. [45] According to influential Party of Regions member Rinat Akhmetov the ideals of the Orange Revolution won at the 2010 election "We had a fair and democratic independent election. During a January 2013 debate in the Russian, Andrew Wilson, "Ukraine's 'Orange Revolution' of 2004: The Paradoxes of Negotiation", in. As part of the Orange Revolution, the Ukrainian constitution was changed to shift powers from the presidency to the parliament. Kyiv - Ukraine - December 2004. Though no-one accused Ukrainian President Kuchma of personally murdering him, persistent rumours suggested that the President had ordered the killing. After the announcement of the run-off, Oleksandr Moroz threw his support behind Viktor Yushchenko. Demonstrations of public support for Yanukovych were held throughout Eastern Ukraine and some of his supporters arrived in Kyiv. [18] (In the autumn of 2001 both Tymoshenko and Yushchenko had broached the idea of setting up such a coalition. The scale of the demonstrations in Kyiv was unprecedented. In addition to the desire to avoid bloodshed, the New York Times article suggests that siloviki, as the security officers are often called in the countries of the former Soviet Union, were motivated by personal aversion to the possibility of having to serve President Yanukovych, who was in his youth convicted of robbery and assault and had alleged connection with corrupt businessmen, especially if he were to ascend to the presidency by fraud. But it was an important symbolic gesture meant to demonstrate the resolve of the Yushchenko campaign not to accept the compromised election results. The absence of clear institutional channels for a swift resolution, the increased politicization of the judiciary, and the use of selective justice against protestors, which strengthened the far right segment, all contributed to the tragic spiral of 64-70. In September 2004 Yushchenko suffered dioxin poisoning under mysterious circumstances. [19]), On 2 July 2004 Our Ukraine and the Yulia Tymoshenko Bloc established the Force of the People, a coalition which aimed to stop "the destructive process that has, as a result of the incumbent authorities, become a characteristic for Ukraine" - at the time President Leonid Kuchma and Prime Minister Viktor Yanukovych were the "incumbent authorities" in Ukraine. Oxfordshire, UK: Routledge (2013). In Kyiv, estimates put the number of protestors at 100,000 — making it the largest demonstration in Ukraine since hundreds of thousands took to the streets during the Orange Revolution in … Your victory depends upon how many people are ready to say ‘No’ to this government, ‘No’ to a total falsification of the elections.” The 2004 presidential election in Ukraine eventually featured two main candidates: The election took place in a highly charged atmosphere, with the Yanukovych team and the outgoing president's administration using their control of the government and state apparatus for intimidation of Yushchenko and his supporters. [42] Especially p. 185-199 but also p. 152-159 for background. "[67][nb 4], In Russian nationalist circles the Orange Revolution has been linked with fascism because, albeit marginal, Ukrainian nationalist extreme right-wing groups and Ukrainian Americans (including Viktor Yushchenko wife, Kateryna Yushchenko, who was born in the United States) were involved in the demonstrations; Russian nationalist groups see both as branches of the same tree of fascism. Photo about Kyiv - Ukraine - December 2004. While Yanukovych supporters have claimed that Yushchenko's connections to the Ukrainian media explain this disparity, the Yushchenko team publicised evidence of many incidents of electoral fraud in favour of the government-backed Yanukovych, witnessed by many local and foreign observers. Image 10 years ago with the violent events of the Orange Revolution in Kiev in 2004. It not only undermined the peoples' respect for Kuchma as a president, but also for the elite ruling class in general. The state of Ukraine during the 2004 presidential election is considered an "ideal condition" for an outburst from the public. Running his campaign through corruption, Prime Minister Viktor Yanukoyych was the favorite to become president. According to one version of events recounted by The New York Times,[33] Ukrainian security agencies played an unusual role in the Orange Revolution, with a KGB successor agency in the former Soviet state providing qualified support to the political opposition. The Orange Revolution was supported by Pora. [26], In total 18.4% of Ukrainians have claimed to have taken part in the Orange Revolution (across Ukraine).[2]. [27] This decision was seen as a victory for the Yushchenko camp while Yanukovych and his supporters favoured a rerun of the entire election rather than just the run-off, as a second-best option if Yanukovych was not awarded the presidency. 5 Howick Place | London | SW1P 1WG. Ukraine - Ukraine - The Orange Revolution and the Yushchenko presidency: The presidential election of 2004 brought Ukraine to the brink of disintegration and civil war. [29] The Yanukovych team attempted to mount a fierce legal challenge to the election results using both the Ukrainian courts and the Election Commission complaint procedures. There are also instances at the brink of Revolution and in the beginning that implied that there would be a violent element to this movement. Young Ukrainian voters were extremely important to the outcome of the 2004 Presidential election. But the implications of that victory--throughout the region and the world--will be fully understood only in the years to come. The official ceremony took place in the Verkhovna Rada building on 23 January 2005 and was followed by the "public inauguration" of the newly sworn President at Maidan Nezalezhnosti (Independence Square) in front of hundreds of thousands of his supporters. Its most intense period lasted from November 22 until December 8, and Yushchenko™s inauguration marked its end. "I didn't want mothers to lose their children and wives their husbands. "in Central Asia weak regimes are already being attacked by extremists and 'Orange Revolutions'. The parliament also approved the changes to the Constitution, implementing a political reform backed by outgoing President Kuchma as a part of a political compromise between the acting authorities and opposition. The color orange symbolizes a brighter future, free of violence. The communists left the alliance: Symonenko opposed the idea of a single candidate from the alliance in the Ukrainian presidential election of 2004; but the other three parties remained allies[17] until July 2006. The Communists also supported these measures. By closing this message, you are consenting to our use of cookies. [46] According to Yulia Tymoshenko the 2010 elections was a missed "chance to become a worthy member of the European family and to put an end to the rule of the oligarchy". It was based on a "competitive authoritarian regime" that is considered a "hybrid regime", allowing for a democracy and market economy to come to life. In the 2010 presidential election, Yanukovych became Yushchenko's successor as Ukrainian President after the Central Election Commission and international observers declared that the presidential election was conducted fairly. "Ukraine Country Profile." Because of Kuchma's scandalous behaviour, he lost many of his supporters with high ranking government positions. It was called the Singing Revolution because of … Problems of Post-Communism: Vol. Register to receive personalised research and resources by email, Why the Orange Revolution Was Short and Peaceful and Euromaidan Long and Violent, /doi/pdf/10.2753/PPC1075-8216610605?needAccess=true. However, all their complaints were dismissed as without merit by both the Supreme Court of Ukraine and the Central Election Commission. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009. [41] Incumbent President Viktor Yushchenko got 5,5% of votes during the election. The Orange Revolution was born after the corrupt presidential election of 2004. 2012. Police violently dispersed crowds in Kyiv’s Maidan Nezalezhnosti (“Independence Square”), and, as the protests continued into December, demonstrators occupied Kyiv’s city hall and called on Yanukovych to resign. [2] This research (also) showed that Ukrainians in total had a less positive view on the Orange Revolution in 2007 than they had in 2005. The Orange parties won a very narrow majority, permitting a new government under Tymoshenko, but Yushchenko's political decline continued to his poor showing in the 2010 presidential election. 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